As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 2, 2022

Registration No. 333-262643

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

_____________________

AMENDMENT NO. 3
TO
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

_____________________

MOONLAKE IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

_____________________

Cayman Islands

 

2834

 

N/A

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

Dorfstrasse 29
6300 Zug
Switzerland
41 415108022
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

_____________________

Walkers Corporate Limited
190 Elgin Avenue
George Town, Grand Cayman
KY1-9008, Cayman Islands
+1 (302)-338-9130
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

_____________________

Copies to:

Nicolas Mosimann

Emanuel Dettwiler

Kellerhals Carrard Basel KlG

Henric Petri-Strasse 35

P.O. Box 257

CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland

+41 58 200 30 00

 

Ryan A. Murr

Branden C. Berns

Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP

555 Mission Street, Suite 3000

San Francisco, CA 94105

(415) 393-8200

 

Bicrom Das

Walkers (Cayman) LLP

190 Elgin Avenue

George Town, Grand Cayman

KY1-9001

Cayman Islands

+1 345 949 0100

_____________________

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933 check the following box: 

If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Smaller reporting company

 

       

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be issued until the registration statement filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and does not constitute the solicitation of an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MAY 2, 2022

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

MOONLAKE IMMUNOTHERAPEUTICS

49,281,756 Class A Ordinary Shares
Offered by the Selling Shareholders

This prospectus relates to the resale from time to time by the selling shareholders named in this prospectus or their permitted transferees (collectively, the “Selling Shareholders”) of up to 49,281,756 Class A ordinary shares of MoonLake Immunotherapeutics, a Cayman Islands exempted company limited by shares (“MoonLake”), par value $0.0001 per share (Class A Ordinary Shares”), including Class A Ordinary Shares that are issuable to certain Selling Shareholders upon the exchange by such Selling Shareholders of common shares of MoonLake Immunotherapeutics AG, a Swiss stock corporation (Aktiengesellschaft) registered with the commercial register of the Canton of Zug, Switzerland under the number CHE-433.093.536 (“MoonLake AG”), par value CHF 0.10 per share (the “MoonLake AG Common Shares”), and simultaneous surrender of Class C ordinary shares of MoonLake, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Class C Ordinary Shares”). The Class A Ordinary Shares registered by this prospectus are referred to herein as the “Registrable Shares.

We are registering the offer and sale by the Selling Shareholders named herein of the Registrable Shares to satisfy certain registration rights granted in favor of the Selling Shareholders. Our registration of the Registrable Shares covered by this prospectus does not mean that either we or the Selling Shareholders will offer or sell any of the Registrable Shares. The Selling Shareholders or their permitted transferees may offer, sell or distribute all or a portion of the Registrable Shares registered hereby publicly or through private transactions at prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. See the section of this prospectus titled “Plan of Distribution” for more information about how the Selling Shareholders may sell the Registrable Shares. We will pay certain offering fees and expenses and fees in connection with the registration of the Registrable Shares and will not receive proceeds from the sale of the Registrable Shares by the Selling Shareholders. See the section of this prospectus titled “Use of Proceeds” for more information. The Selling Shareholders will pay any discounts and commissions and expenses incurred by the Selling Shareholders for brokerage, accounting, tax or legal services or any other expenses incurred by the Selling Shareholders in disposing of the Registrable Shares.

Our Class A Ordinary Shares are listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market of the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) and trade under the symbol “MLTX”. On April 29, 2022, the closing price of our Class A Ordinary Shares was $6.20.

You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.

We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable federal securities laws and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS THAT ARE DESCRIBED IN THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION BEGINNING ON PAGE 7 OF THIS PROSPECTUS.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the securities to be issued under this prospectus or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is            , 2022.

 

Table of Contents

i

Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, the Selling Shareholders may, from time to time, issue, offer and sell, as applicable, any combination of the Class A Ordinary Shares described in this prospectus in one or more offerings from time to time through any means described in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” More specific terms of the Class A Ordinary Shares that the Selling Shareholders offer and sell may be provided in a prospectus supplement that describes, among other things, the specific amounts and prices of the Class A Ordinary Shares being offered and the terms of the offering.

A prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information included in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Neither we nor the Selling Shareholders have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectus we have prepared or authorized. We and the Selling Shareholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the Class A Ordinary Shares offered hereby and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of those documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

For investors outside the United States: neither we nor the Selling Shareholders have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of our securities and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

ii

Table of Contents

MARKET, RANKING AND OTHER INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus contains estimates, projections and other information concerning MoonLake’s industry, business and the potential markets for its product candidate, including data regarding the estimated size of such markets and the incidence of certain medical conditions. We obtained the industry, market and competitive position data set forth in this prospectus from MoonLake’s internal estimates and research, as well as from academic and industry publications, research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. MoonLake’s internal estimates are derived from publicly available information released by industry analysts and third-party sources, MoonLake’s internal research and industry experience, and are based on assumptions made by MoonLake based on such data and its knowledge of the industry and market, which MoonLake believes to be reasonable.

We believe that the third-party data set forth in this prospectus is reliable and based on reasonable assumptions. This information, to the extent it contains estimates or projections involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates or projections. The industry in which MoonLake operates is subject to risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

This prospectus may contain references to trademarks, trade names or service marks of MoonLake and other entities. Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus are presented without the TM, SM and ® symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our respective rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names.

iii

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTORY NOTE REGARDING THE BUSINESS COMBINATION

On April 5, 2022 (the “Closing Date”), MoonLake Immunotherapeutics, a Cayman Islands exempted company (formerly known as Helix Acquisition Corp.) (prior to the Closing Date, “Helix” and after the Closing Date, “MoonLake”) consummated the previously announced business combination (the “Closing”) pursuant to that certain Business Combination Agreement dated October 4, 2021 (the “Business Combination Agreement”), by and among Helix, MoonLake AG, the existing equityholders of MoonLake AG set forth on the signature pages to the Business Combination Agreement and equityholders of MoonLake AG that executed joinders to the Business Combination Agreement (collectively, the “ML Parties”), Helix Holdings LLC, a Cayman Islands limited liability company and the sponsor of Helix (the “Sponsor”), and the representative of the ML Parties (such transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, collectively, the “Business Combination”). In connection with the Closing, the registrant changed its name from Helix Acquisition Corp. to MoonLake Immunotherapeutics.

The Business Combination Agreement provided for, among other things, the following transactions:

(i)     Two business days prior to the Closing Date, the ML Parties and MoonLake AG effectuated a restructuring of MoonLake AG’s share capital to, among other things, (x) convert the existing Series A preferred shares of MoonLake AG, par value of CHF 0.10 per share, into an equal number of MoonLake AG Common Shares such that the ML Parties held a single class of capital stock of MoonLake AG immediately prior to the Closing and (y) approve a capital increase for the issuance of 4,006,736 Class V Voting Shares of MoonLake AG, par value CHF 0.01 per share (“MoonLake AG Class V Voting Shares”), to Helix, each Class V Voting Share due to its lower par value having ten times the voting power of a MoonLake AG Common Share (the “Restructuring”).

(ii)    At the Closing, 2,875,000 Class B ordinary shares of Helix, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Class B Ordinary Shares”), constituting all of the then-outstanding Class B Ordinary Shares, were automatically converted into Class A Ordinary Shares on a one-for-one basis.

(iii)   At the Closing, Helix amended and restated its existing memorandum and articles of association (the “Prior MAA,” and, as amended, the “MAA”) to, among other things, establish a share structure consisting of the Class A Ordinary Shares, which carry economic and voting rights, and Class C Ordinary Shares, which carry voting rights but no economic rights.

(iv)   On the Closing Date, Helix paid all unpaid transaction expenses and contributed $134,646,009 to MoonLake AG, including $15,000,000 loan repayment pursuant to a promissory note dated March 21, 2022, by and between Helix and Cormorant Asset Management LP.

(v)    On the Closing Date, following the Restructuring, Biotechnology Value Fund, L.P., Biotechnology Value Fund II, L.P., and Biotechnology Value Trading Fund OS, L.P. (collectively, the “BVF Shareholders”) assigned all of their MoonLake AG Common Shares to Helix and Helix issued to the BVF Shareholders 18,501,284 Class A Ordinary Shares.

(vi)   On the Closing Date, following the Restructuring, Helix issued 15,775,472 Class C Ordinary Shares to the ML Parties (other than the BVF Shareholders).

Additionally, on the Closing Date, Helix issued to the PIPE Investors (as defined below in the section entitled “Introductory Note Regarding The Business Combination — Subscription Agreements and PIPE Investment (Private Placement)”) an aggregate of 11,700,000 Class A Ordinary Shares.

The transactions set forth in the Business Combination Agreement constituted a “Business Combination” as contemplated by Helix’s amended and restated memorandum and articles of association.

Investment Agreement

On October 4, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, Helix, MoonLake AG and each of the ML Parties entered into an Investment Agreement (as amended, the “Investment Agreement”). Pursuant to the terms of the Investment Agreement, two business days prior to the Closing Date, the existing shareholders of MoonLake AG held an extraordinary shareholders meeting to (i) approve the conversion of MoonLake AG Series A Preferred Shares into MoonLake AG Common Shares, (ii) approve the increase of the

iv

Table of Contents

nominal statutory capital of MoonLake AG through the issuance of the MoonLake AG Class V Voting Shares to Helix, (iii) waive such existing MoonLake AG shareholders’ subscription rights with respect to the nominal capital increase and the issuance of the MoonLake AG Class V Voting Shares to Helix, (iv) approve the amendment of MoonLake AG’s articles of association to reflect such conversion and capital increase, and (v) elect one director nominated by Helix.

The foregoing description of the Investment Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Investment Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 10.1 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Subscription Agreements and PIPE Investment (Private Placement)

On October 4, 2021, concurrently with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, and subsequently on March 31, 2022 and April 4, 2022, Helix entered into subscription agreements (collectively, the “PIPE Subscription Agreements”) with certain investors (collectively, the “PIPE Investors,” which includes affiliates of the Sponsor and certain existing equityholders of MoonLake AG) pursuant to which, and on the terms and subject to the conditions of which, the PIPE Investors have collectively subscribed for 11,700,000 Class A Ordinary Shares (the “PIPE”), 11,600,000 shares of which were issued at a price of $10.00 per share for gross proceeds of $116,000,000 and 100,000 shares of which were issued to placement agents of the PIPE in satisfaction of an aggregate of $1,000,000 of fees owed by Helix to such placement agents.

The PIPE Subscription Agreements contain customary representations and warranties of Helix, on the one hand, and each PIPE Investor, on the other hand, and customary conditions to closing, including the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement. The PIPE was consummated substantially concurrent with the Closing of the Business Combination. The PIPE Subscription Agreements provide for certain customary registration rights for the PIPE Investors.

The foregoing description of the PIPE Subscription Agreements and the PIPE is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the forms of PIPE Subscription Agreements, copies of which are attached hereto as Exhibits 10.6 and 10.7 and are incorporated herein by reference.

Amended Sponsor Agreement

On October 4, 2021, Helix, the Sponsor, and the officers and directors of Helix (the “Insiders”) entered into an amendment (the “Amended Sponsor Agreement”) to the letter agreement among the parties dated October 19, 2020 (the “Sponsor Letter”). Pursuant to the Amended Sponsor Agreement, the Sponsor and Insiders (i) waived the anti-dilution and conversion price adjustments set forth in Helix’s Prior MAA with respect to the Class B ordinary shares held by the Sponsor and Insiders and (ii) voted in favor of approval of the adoption of the Business Combination Agreement, the Business Combination, and each other proposal presented by Helix for approval by Helix’s shareholders.

The foregoing description of the Amended Sponsor Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Amended Sponsor Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 10.4 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Restated and Amended Shareholders’ Agreement

On April 5, 2022, Helix, MoonLake AG and each ML Party entered into a Restated and Amended Shareholders’ Agreement (the “A&R Shareholders’ Agreement”). Pursuant to the terms of the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, MoonLake AG’s existing shareholders’ agreement was amended and restated. The A&R Shareholders’ Agreement became effective as of the registration of the increase of MoonLake AG’s nominal share capital in the commercial register of the Canton of Zug, Switzerland and will continue in force until the earlier of 15 years or the date on which all of the ML Parties have exchanged their equity in MoonLake AG for Class A Ordinary Shares.

With the intent to approximate the rights, obligations and restrictions that an ML Party would enjoy if it were a holder of Class A Ordinary Shares, the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement (i) imposes certain transfer and other restrictions on the ML Parties, (ii) provides for the waiver of certain statutory rights and (iii) establishes certain mechanics whereby

v

Table of Contents

Helix and each of the ML Parties are able to effect the conversion of MoonLake AG Common Shares and Class C Ordinary Shares into a number of Class A Ordinary Shares equal to the exchange ratio of 33.638698 Class A Ordinary Shares to one MoonLake AG Common Share.

The foregoing description of the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 10.2 and is incorporated herein by reference.

Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement

On April 5, 2022, MoonLake AG, the Sponsor and certain ML Parties entered into an amended and restated registration rights agreement (the “A&R Registration Rights Agreement”) pursuant to which, among other things, the parties thereto were granted certain customary registration rights with respect to Class A Ordinary Shares beneficially held by them, directly or indirectly, and agreed to transfer restrictions with respect to the Class A Ordinary Shares and Class C Ordinary Shares beneficially held by them, as applicable.

Pursuant to the A&R Registration Rights Agreement and/or the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, as applicable, the following lock-ups are in place: (a) a six-month lock-up period following the Closing applies to the MoonLake AG Common Shares and Class C Ordinary Shares held by the ML Parties (other than the BVF Shareholders) and any Class A Ordinary Shares received by them during the lock-up period in exchange for their MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of their Class C Ordinary Shares; (b) a thirty-day lock-up period following the Closing applies to the 430,000 Class A Ordinary Shares purchased by the Sponsor, at a price of $10.00 per share, for an aggregate investment of $4.3 million, in a private placement simultaneously with the consummation of the initial public offering held by the Sponsor and its permitted transferees (the “private placement shares”); (c) a one-year lock-up period following the Closing applies to (i) the Class A Ordinary Shares received upon conversion of the Class B Ordinary Shares held by the Sponsor and Helix’s independent directors (the “founder shares”) and (ii) the Class A Ordinary Shares held by the BVF Shareholders and MSI BVF SPV LLC, subject to earlier release from the lock-up if subsequent to the Business Combination (x) the closing price of the Class A Ordinary Shares equals or exceeds $12.00 per share (as adjusted for share sub-divisions, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 150 days after the Closing or (y) MoonLake completes a liquidation, merger, share exchange or other similar transaction that results in all of MoonLake’s shareholders having the right to exchange their ordinary shares for cash, securities or other property. The PIPE Investors are not restricted from selling any of their Class A Ordinary Shares following the Closing.

The foregoing description of the A&R Registration Rights Agreement is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the A&R Registration Rights Agreement, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 10.5 and is incorporated herein by reference.

vi

Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including with respect to the anticipated timing, completion, and effects of the Business Combination. You should note that on April 8, 2021, the staff of the SEC issued a public statement entitled “SPAC IPOs and Liability Risk under the Securities Act,” in which the SEC staff indicated that there is uncertainty as to the availability of the safe harbor in connection with a SPAC merger. We have based these forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus on the current expectations and beliefs of management of MoonLake, and they are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intends,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “would” and similar expressions may identify forward-looking statements, but the absence of these words does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Forward-looking statements in this prospectus may include, for example, statements about:

•        the ability of MoonLake to:

•        realize the benefits expected from the Business Combination; and

•        maintain the listing of the Class A Ordinary Shares on Nasdaq;

•        MoonLake’s success in retaining or recruiting, or changes required in, its officers, key employees or directors;

•        factors relating to the business, operations and financial performance of MoonLake, including, but not limited to:

•        MoonLake’s limited operating history;

•        MoonLake has not initiated, conducted or completed any clinical trials, and has no products approved for commercial sale;

•        MoonLake has incurred significant losses since inception, and it expects to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future;

•        MoonLake requires substantial additional capital to finance its operations, and if it is unable to raise such capital when needed or on acceptable terms, it may be forced to delay, reduce, and/or eliminate one or more of its development programs or future commercialization efforts;

•        MoonLake is substantially dependent on the success of MoonLake’s novel tri-specific nanobody, sonelokimab, also known as M1095/ALX 0761, which it licenses from Merck Healthcare KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (“MHKDG”);

•        MoonLake’s ability to renew existing contracts;

•        MoonLake’s ability to obtain regulatory approval for its products, and any related restrictions or limitations of any approved products;

•        MoonLake’s ability to respond to general economic conditions;

•        MoonLake’s ability to manage its growth effectively;

•        the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic;

•        competition and competitive pressures from other companies worldwide in the industries in which MoonLake will operate;

•        litigation and the ability to adequately protect MoonLake’s intellectual property rights; and

•        other factors detailed under the section entitled “Risk Factors.”

vii

Table of Contents

These and other factors that could cause actual results to differ from those implied by the forward-looking statements in this prospectus are more fully described under the heading “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. The risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” are not exhaustive. Other sections of this prospectus describe additional factors that could adversely affect the business, financial condition or results of operations of MoonLake. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible to predict all such risk factors, nor can MoonLake assess the impact of all such risk factors on the business of MoonLake or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. You should not put undue reliance on these statements, which speak only as of the date hereof. All forward-looking statements attributable to MoonLake or persons acting on its behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. MoonLake undertakes no obligations to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

In addition, statements of belief and similar statements reflect the beliefs and opinions of MoonLake on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to MoonLake as of the date of this prospectus, and while MoonLake believes such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and statements should not be read to indicate that MoonLake has conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you should not put undue reliance on these statements.

viii

Table of Contents

SUMMARY OF THE PROSPECTUS

This summary highlights selected information included in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that may be important to you in making an investment decision. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information included in this prospectus. Before making your investment decision with respect to our Class A Ordinary Shares, you should carefully read this entire prospectus, including the information under “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “MoonLake,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms prior are intended to refer to MoonLake Immunotherapeutics and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references in this prospectus to the “Board” are intended to refer to tbe board of directors of MoonLake Immunotherapeutics.

Business Summary

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company advancing transformative therapies to address significant unmet needs in inflammatory skin and joint diseases. Our novel tri-specific Nanobody, sonelokimab (“SLK”, also known as M1095/ALX 0761) is an IL-17A and IL-17F inhibitor that has shown therapeutic activity as measured by psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scores in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. The terms “Nanobody” and “Nanobodies” used herewith are registered trademarks of Ablynx, a Sanofi company. SLK is a proprietary Nanobody exclusively licensed from Merck Healthcare KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (“MHKDG”).

We are developing a portfolio of therapeutic indications for SLK, and are focused on demonstrating its efficacy, safety and dosing convenience, initially in hidradenitis suppurativa (“HS”), psoriatic arthritis (“PsA”), and radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (“axSpA”). We believe that SLK has a differentiated mechanism of action and potential to penetrate into deep skin and joint tissue. We envision SLK as a key therapeutic alternative in our initial target indications, and potentially in multiple other IL-17 driven inflammatory conditions. Building on the clinical data generated to date, we intend to pursue the clinical development of SLK.

SLK was discovered by MHKDG and by Ablynx, a Sanofi company, and was previously studied by Avillion LLP under a 2017 co-development agreement with MHKDG in a Phase 2b clinical trial in over 300 moderate-to-severe psoriasis (“PsO”) patients.

We plan to develop SLK in inflammatory diseases in dermatology and rheumatology where the pathophysiology is known to be driven by IL-17A and IL-17F. This group of IL-17A/F Inflammatory Diseases, which we call “AFIDs” comprises our initial target diseases (HS, PsA, and axSpA) among several other inflammatory conditions (including PsO). Our initial target diseases affect millions of people worldwide, and we believe there is a need for improved treatment options. We ultimately intend to initiate Phase 2 trials for the therapeutic indications of HS, PsA, and axSpA,, in both the United States and Europe, beginning with Phase 2 clinical trials in HS that commenced in April 2022. SLK’s purposefully designed molecular characteristics, including its albumin binding site are intended to facilitate deep tissue penetration in the skin and joints.

Our Vision and Our Strategy

Our vision is to develop transformative therapies for inflammatory skin and joint diseases. Our strategy is centered on developing SLK as, to our knowledge, the first ever Nanobody in clinical development for our intentionally selected indications. We seek to accomplish this strategy by:

•        Building the efficacy and safety profile of SLK for patients — Ultimately, our overall Phase 2 program is expected to encompass three therapeutic indications: HS, PsA and axSpA (see “Business — Our Pipeline — Figure 3”, below). We began Phase 2 clinical trials in HS in April 2022. Clinical trials will employ established therapeutic endpoints such as response criteria defined by the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Clinical Response (“HiSCR”), American College of Rheumatology (“ACR”), and Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (“ASAS”), and that reflect real-world improvement in patient outcomes and life quality. Upon successful completion of any Phase 2 program, we anticipate commencing a Phase 3 clinical trial.

1

Table of Contents

•        Strengthening the differentiation elements for future SLK patients — In parallel with our Phase 2 program, we expect to conduct basic research and potential investigator-initiated trials to continue refining our understanding of SLK and Nanobody biology. This research will inform our clinical efforts and will include the study of SLK’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a variety of cellular, deep-tissue, and disease models (in vitro and in vivo), including exploration of tissue penetration and targeting of SLK in disease models. We expect these studies to provide a more complete picture of IL-17A and IL17-F regulation. To further enhance our understanding of the potential impact of different therapies on patient outcomes, we will also explore real-world data analytics to refine future positioning of SLK versus other competing therapies. We expect this work to more clearly differentiate SLK, a Nanobody, from monoclonal antibody-based treatment options, including other IL-17 A/F inhibitors.

•        Building our manufacturing capabilities — We intend to continue investing in our manufacturing capabilities. We believe these investments will provide sufficient supply for our clinical trials and eventually scale up production to meet commercial requirements. Anticipated continual improvements in manufacturing capabilities will be important in driving efficiency, maintaining high standards of quality control, and ensuring that investigators, physicians, and patients have adequate access to our product candidates at all points during studies and if approved. We intend to execute a robust chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and manufacturing plan and to initially pursue technology transfers for both drug substance and drug product into commercial scale contract manufacturing organizations. We believe this will allow scale-up of SLK preparing us well in advance of potential Phase 3 clinical trials and commercial requirements.

•        Deepening our intellectual property portfolio to support our Nanobody technology and product candidates.    We intend to continue extending our global intellectual property portfolio consisting of patents and patent applications, trade secrets, trademarks, and know-how to protect our SLK and its applications.

•        Licensing/broadening our portfolio.    To further enhance MoonLake’s overall potential and provide increased optionality, we may in-license or acquire other product candidates, in addition to SLK, for clinical development. We believe that our management team is well-positioned to identify assets that have attractive risk/reward profiles and that can be rapidly advanced to market approval, supplemented by our expertise and capabilities.

Our Focus: Inflammatory Diseases Involving IL-17A and IL-17F

SLK is an inhibitor of IL-17A and IL-17F that modulates cytokine activity in a fashion that is founded in current understanding of the importance of IL-17 biology in inflammatory disease. IL-17 cytokines produced by T cells and other cell types can potently promote inflammation and also play a role in protection against some infectious agents. The inflammatory effects of IL-17 can be targeted directly by blocking the cytokine or its receptor, or indirectly by blocking cytokines upstream of IL-17-producing cells. Members of this cytokine group have been shown to play an important role in chronic inflammation that occurs during the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and allergies. IL-17 contributes to various lesions that are produced by Th17 cells, one subset of helper T cells, and by gamma delta (γδ) T cells and innate lymphoid cells. In healthy skin, IL-17A is largely absent, but is significantly upregulated in psoriatic lesions. Conversely, IL-17F is present in healthy skin at detectably higher concentrations than IL-17A and also upregulated in psoriasis. The current view is that IL-17F contributes to inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, which is why IL-17A/F inhibition exerts an increased anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential compared to just IL-17A inhibition, but also plays a more important role than IL-17A in the physiological defense of a narrow spectrum of infections, particularly those caused by Candida species.

When overexpression of IL-17A and IL17-F are implicated in pathophysiology, we call these diseases AFIDs. Millions of people worldwide suffer from AFIDs and we believe there are limited treatment options that provide meaningful clinical improvement. Well-known diseases that we classify as AFIDs include PsA, axSpA, HS, and psoriasis among others. PsA has an estimated worldwide prevalence of up to 0.5%. Furthermore, up to 40% of patients with PsA have axial disease. AxSpA has an estimated worldwide prevalence up to 1.6% and is categorized as either non-radiographic axial SpA (nr-axSpA), defined by the absence of damage on the sacroiliac joints with X-ray imaging, or ankylosing spondylitis (AS, sometimes referred to as radiographic axial SpA, r-axSpA; prevalence: up to 0.3%), defined by the presence of damage on sacroiliac joints with X-ray imaging. HS has an estimated worldwide prevalence of up to 1.2%,

2

Table of Contents

though we believe it is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated with limited effective treatment options available. These diseases exhibit notable overlap with approximately 30% of psoriasis patients exhibiting PsA and up to 40% of PsA patients exhibiting axSpA. In the United States alone, HS, PsA, and axSpA together affect between 2.0 and 2.5 million diagnosed patients. Finally, PsO has an estimated worldwide prevalence of approximately 2.5% and affects an estimated 1.7 million diagnosed patients in the United States alone. Other AFIDs that we may potentially pursue in the future include palmoplantar pustulosis, generalized pustular psoriasis and pyoderma gangrenosum.

Organizational Structure

The following diagrams illustrate in simplified terms the current organizational structure of MoonLake and the effect of the issuance of Class A Ordinary Shares to certain Selling Shareholders pursuant to the Restated and Amended Shareholders’ Agreement upon the exchange by such Selling Shareholders of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of Class C Ordinary Shares:

3

Table of Contents

Stock Exchange Listing

Our Class A Ordinary Shares are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “MLTX.”

Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. If some investors find our securities less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our securities and the prices of our securities may be more volatile.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an “emerging growth company” can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We intend to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the completion of Helix’s initial public offering of Class A Ordinary Shares consummated on October 22, 2020 (“IPO”) (that is, December 31, 2025), (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our Class A Ordinary Shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” will have the meaning associated with it in the JOBS Act.

Additionally, we are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Item 10(f)(1) of Regulation S-K. Smaller reporting companies may take advantage of certain reduced disclosure obligations, including, among other things, providing only two years of audited financial statements. We will remain a smaller reporting company until the last day of the fiscal year in which (1) the market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $250 million as of the prior June 30, or (2) our annual revenues exceeded $100 million during such completed fiscal year and the market value of our ordinary shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the prior June 30.

Risk Factors Summary

Investing in our Class A Ordinary Shares involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described in “Risk Factors” before making a decision to invest in our Class A Ordinary Shares. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations would likely be materially adversely affected.

Below is a summary of some of the risks we face.

•        MoonLake has a limited operating history, has not initiated, conducted or completed any clinical trials, and has no products approved for commercial sale.

•        MoonLake has incurred losses since inception, and it expects to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future. MoonLake has not generated any revenue from SLK and may never generate revenue or become profitable.

•        If MoonLake is unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, it may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of development programs or future commercialization efforts.

•        MoonLake’s business relies on certain licensing rights that can be terminated in certain circumstances. If MoonLake AG breaches the agreement, or if it is unable to satisfy its diligence obligations, under which it licenses rights to SLK from MHKDG, it could lose the ability to develop and commercialize SLK.

4

Table of Contents

•        MoonLake has never successfully completed the regulatory approval process for any of its product candidates and it may be unable to do so for any product candidates it acquires or develops.

•        MoonLake is substantially dependent on the success of SLK, and its anticipated clinical trials of SLK may not be successful.

•        The results of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of MoonLake’s later clinical trials, and the results of its clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

•        Preclinical and clinical development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain outcomes, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future clinical trial results.

•        Preliminary, interim data from MoonLake’s clinical trials that it announces or publishes may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures.

•        Public health crises such as pandemics or similar outbreaks have affected and could continue to seriously and adversely affect MoonLake’s preclinical studies and anticipated clinical trials, business, financial condition and results of operations.

•        MoonLake faces substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing, licensing or commercializing products before or more successfully than MoonLake does.

•        The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are complex, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable. If MoonLake is not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals for SLK, it may not be able to commercialize, or may be delayed in commercializing, SLK, and its ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

•        MoonLake is dependent on its key personnel and anticipates hiring new key personnel. If MoonLake is not successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, it may not be able to successfully implement its business strategy.

•        MoonLake currently relies, and plans to rely in the future, on third parties to conduct and support its preclinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not properly and successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, MoonLake may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of or commercialize SLK.

•        MoonLake currently relies on third parties to produce and process SLK. Its business could be adversely affected if the third-party manufacturers fail to provide it with sufficient quantities of SLK or fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices.

•        MoonLake’s ability to protect its patents and other proprietary rights is uncertain, exposing it to the possible loss of competitive advantage.

•        MoonLake enjoys only limited geographical protection with respect to certain patents and may not be able to protect its intellectual property rights throughout the world.

•        The price of MoonLake’s stock may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

5

Table of Contents

SUMMARY OF THE OFFERING

Issuer

 

MoonLake Immunotherapeutics

Class A Ordinary Shares offered by the Selling Shareholders

 


49,281,756, including Class A Ordinary Shares issuable to Selling Shareholders upon the exchange of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender by such Selling Shareholder of Class C Ordinary Shares

Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding
(at April 29, 2022)

 

36,925,639

Class C Ordinary Shares outstanding
(at April 29, 2022)

 

15,775,472

Class A Ordinary Shares outstanding assuming the exchange of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of Class C Ordinary Shares

 

52,701,111

Use of proceeds

 

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of the Class A Ordinary Shares by the Selling Shareholders. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Business Combination — Related Lock-Up Agreements

 


Certain of our shareholders, including certain of the Selling Shareholders, are subject to certain restrictions on transfer until the termination of applicable lock-up periods. See “Securities Act Restrictions on Resale of Securities — Lock-Up Agreements.”

Market for our Class A Ordinary Shares

 

Our Class A Ordinary Shares are currently listed on Nasdaq under the symbol “MLTX.”

Risk factors

 

Any investment in the Class A Ordinary Shares offered hereby is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus.

6

Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our Class A Ordinary Shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our business, prospects, financial condition or operating results could decline due to any of these risks and, as a result, you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to MoonLake

Unless the context otherwise requires, references to “we”, “us” and “our” in this subsection “— Risks Related to MoonLake” generally refer to MoonLake in the present tense and the post-combination Company from and after the Business Combination.

Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History, Business, Financial Condition, and Results of Operations

We have a limited operating history, have not initiated, conducted or completed any clinical trials, and have no products approved for commercial sale.

We are a clinical-stage company with limited operating history. To become and remain profitable, we must develop and eventually commercialize a product or products with significant market potential. This will require us to be successful in a range of challenging activities, including establishing our business model and key third-party relationships with payers, completing preclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates, obtaining marketing approval for these product candidates, manufacturing, marketing, selling those products for which we may obtain marketing approval and satisfying any post-marketing requirements.

We have no products approved for commercial sale and since MoonLake AG’s inception in March 2021, we have incurred significant operating losses and have utilized substantially all of our resources to date in-licensing and commencing development of our single product candidate, SLK, organizing and staffing our company and providing other general and administrative support for our initial operations. We have no significant experience as a company in initiating, conducting or completing clinical trials, including global late-stage clinical trials. In particular, prior to our in-license of SLK on April 29, 2021, (i) MHKDG conducted a Phase 1 trial for SLK, and (ii) Avillion LLP, under a 2017 co-development agreement with MHKDG, conducted a Phase 2b trial for SLK. As with any clinical development, we cannot be certain that our planned clinical trials will begin or be completed on time or at all. In addition, we have not yet demonstrated an ability to obtain marketing approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales, marketing and distribution activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Our ability to generate revenue depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:

•        successfully complete our ongoing and planned preclinical and clinical studies for SLK program;

•        timely file and gain acceptance of investigational new drug applications for our programs in order to commence planned clinical trials or future clinical trials;

•        successfully enroll subjects in, and complete, our ongoing and planned clinical trials;

•        obtain data and review and comments to our development plan for SLK from MHKDG which may delay our ability to perform diligence, development and commercialization;

•        initiate and successfully complete all safety and efficacy studies required to obtain U.S. and foreign regulatory approval for our product candidates, and additional clinical trials or other studies beyond those planned to support the approval and commercialization of SLK;

•        successfully demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA, or similar foreign regulatory authorities the safety and efficacy and acceptable risk to benefit profile of SLK or any future SLK product candidates;

•        successfully manage the prevalence, duration and severity of potential side effects or other safety issues experienced with our product candidates, if any;

•        obtain the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals from the FDA, EMA and similar foreign regulatory authorities;

7

Table of Contents

•        establish commercial manufacturing capabilities or make arrangements with third-party manufacturers for clinical supply and commercial manufacturing;

•        obtain and maintain patent and trade secret protection or regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;

•        launch commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

•        obtain and maintain acceptance of the products, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payers;

•        position our product conducts to effectively compete with other therapies;

•        obtain and maintain healthcare coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products;

•        enforce and defend intellectual property rights and claims; and

•        maintain a continued acceptable safety profile of SLK following approval.

Due to the uncertainties and risks associated with these activities, we are unable to accurately and precisely predict the timing and amount of revenues, the extent of any further losses or if or when we might achieve profitability. Consequently, any predictions you make about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we succeed in commercializing SLK, we may never generate revenue that is significant enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis and we will continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenditures to develop and market additional product candidates. Our failure to become and remain profitable could decrease the value of our shares and impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations. Further, we may encounter unexpected expenses, challenges and complications from known and unknown factors such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

We have incurred losses since inception, and we expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future. We have not generated any revenue from SLK and may never generate revenue or become profitable.

Investment in biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and entails substantial upfront capital expenditures and risk that any product candidate will fail to demonstrate adequate efficacy or an acceptable safety profile, gain regulatory approval and become commercially viable. We have no products approved for commercial sale, we have not generated any revenue from product sales to date, and we continue to incur research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. We do not expect to generate product revenue unless or until we successfully complete clinical development and obtain regulatory approval from the FDA, EMA and similar foreign regulatory authorities of, and then successfully commercialize, SLK in one or more indications. We may never succeed in these activities and, even if we do, may never generate revenues that are significant or large enough to achieve profitability. If we are unable to generate sufficient revenue through the sale of SLK, we may be unable to continue operations without additional funding.

We have incurred net losses in each period since we commenced operations in March 10, 2021. Our net losses were $(53,643,615) for the period from March 10, 2021 to December 31, 2021. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. Our failure to become profitable would decrease the value of our company and could impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business and/or continue our operations. A decline in the value of our Company could also cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

If we are unable to raise capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our development programs or future commercialization efforts, which would have a negative impact on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

Developing biopharmaceutical products is a very long, time-consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes years to complete. We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval from the FDA, EMA, and similar foreign regulatory

8

Table of Contents

authorities for, SLK. Even if SLK is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring costs associated with sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution activities to launch SLK. Our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA, EMA, or other regulatory agencies to perform preclinical studies or clinical trials in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Because the design and outcome of our planned and anticipated clinical trials are highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amount of funding that will be necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of SLK. Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including factors that are not within our control. Based on our current operating plan, we believe our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities, will be sufficient to fund our operations through mid-2024. This estimate is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

We do not have any committed external sources of funds and adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. We may be required to seek additional funds sooner than planned through public or private equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations and licensing arrangements or other sources. Such financing may dilute our shareholders or the failure to obtain such financing may restrict our operating activities. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences and anti-dilution protections that adversely affect your rights as a shareholder. Debt financing may result in the imposition of debt covenants, increased fixed payment obligations or other restrictions that may affect our business. If we raise additional funds through upfront payments or milestone payments pursuant to future collaborations with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to SLK, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. Our ability to raise additional capital may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and the recent disruptions to and volatility in the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed or on acceptable terms would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy, and we may have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend or eliminate one or more of our research-stage programs, clinical trials or future commercialization efforts. We delayed some of our research-stage programs and clinical trials and incurred additional debt to fund our operations as a result of a longer-than-expected period between the signing and closing of the Business Combination Agreement.

In our own required quarterly assessments, we may continue to conclude that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and future reports from our independent registered public accounting firm may also contain statements expressing substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we seek additional financing to fund our business activities in the future and there remains substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, investors or other financing sources may be unwilling to provide additional funding on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Our business relies on certain licensing rights from MHKDG that can be terminated in certain circumstances. If we breach the agreement, or if we are unable to satisfy our diligence obligations under which we license rights to SLK from MHKDG, we could lose the ability to develop and commercialize SLK.

Our ability to continue to develop and commercialize SLK is dependent on the use of certain intellectual property that is licensed to us by MHKDG. These licenses are granted pursuant to agreements setting forth certain terms and condition for maintaining such licenses. In the event that the terms and conditions are not met, the licenses are at risk of being revoked and the granting process may be terminated. Our primary license agreement is the MHKDG License. See “Business — The Merck Healthcare KGaA (Darmstadt, Germany) License Agreement.

On April 29, 2021, we entered into a worldwide exclusive license agreement with MHKDG for certain intellectual property covering SLK and to sublicense certain rights licensed to MHKDG to (i) develop and commercialize products containing SLK; and (ii) manufacture SLK using the underlying yeast strain Pichia pastoris. If there is any dispute between us and MHKDG regarding our rights under the license agreement, including if we disagree with MHKDG’s comments to our development plan for SLK or if we are unable to make our milestone obligations, our ability to develop and commercialize SLK may be adversely affected. Any uncured, material breach by us under the license agreement could result in our loss of exclusive rights to SLK and may lead to a complete termination of our product development efforts for SLK.

9

Table of Contents

We also have diligence obligations under the exclusive license with MHKDG, including: (a) developing one licensed product in at least two indications; (b) launching and commercializing one product in seven major markets, including with pricing approval if required for commercialization, within 12 months of receiving regulatory approval in the respective market; (c) securing within six months of the effective date of the exclusive license a contract research facility; and (d) initiating two Phase 2 clinical trials for a product within 12 months of the effective date of the exclusive license, taking into account any regulatory requirements from the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities. We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully complete clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial scale product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. Due to the uncertainties and risks associated with these activities, we may not be successful in meeting these diligence obligations within the required timeframes, and may lose the ability to develop and commercialize SLK.

Due to the significant resources required for the development of SLK, we must prioritize the pursuit of treatments for certain indications. We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular indication and fail to capitalize on indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

We are developing therapies for patients with inflammatory skin and joint diseases with unmet needs. In particular, we are developing a portfolio of therapeutic indications for SLK, and are initially focused on the development of SLK in inflammatory diseases including HS, PSA, and axSpA. We ultimately intend to initiate Phase 2 trials for the indications of HS, PsA, and axSpA, in both the United States and Europe, beginning with Phase 2 clinical trials in HS that commenced in April 2022.

Our decisions concerning the allocation of research, development, collaboration, management and financial resources toward particular indications may not lead to the development of any viable commercial product and may divert resources away from opportunities for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential or a greater likelihood of success. The primary endpoints for the Phase 2 trials for the therapeutic indications of HS, PsA, and axSpA are expected to be therapeutic scores of the HiSCR, ACR and ASAS, respectively. Even if the primary endpoints of such trials are met and SLK demonstrates meaningful increases in such therapeutic scores, there is no guarantee that such increases will lead to the market acceptance or commercial success of SLK, if approved. Even if SLK receives marketing approval, it may not achieve commercial success. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for SLK, we may relinquish valuable rights to SLK through future collaboration, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights. We may make incorrect determinations regarding the viability or market potential of SLK or misread trends in our industry.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

In the course of preparing the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, our management identified an error resulting from our failure to correctly account for a vesting condition imposed on certain founder shares pursuant to the shareholders’ agreement that we entered into with our shareholders on April 28, 2021. Following the identification of the aforementioned error, our management performed a root cause analysis and identified that the error related to a deficiency in the design and implementation of effective controls relating to our management’s review of complex and bespoke transactions. As such, our management determined that a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting existed at that time. Our management has since corrected the error in the consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021 and has commenced certain remediation steps as set out below.

10

Table of Contents

We have developed a plan to remediate the material weakness by designing and implementing controls over our significant contracts and complex transactions, including performing a comprehensive review over the accuracy and reasonableness of accounting conclusions over the relevant terms of our contracts and involving relevant subject matter experts as necessary. Neither we nor our independent registered public accounting firm have tested the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully remediate the material weakness described above. In addition, any such failures could result in litigation or regulatory action by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, loss of investor confidence, delisting of our securities, harm to our reputation and financial condition, or diversion of financial and management resources from the operation of our business.

The Company may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that could have a significant negative effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and stock price, which could cause you to lose some or all of your investment.

The Company may be forced to later write-down or write-off assets, restructure its operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on the Company’s liquidity, the fact that the Company reports charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about the Company or its securities. In addition, charges of this nature may cause the Company to violate net worth or other covenants to which we may be subject. Accordingly, any shareholders could suffer a reduction in the value of their shares. Such shareholders are unlikely to have a remedy for such reduction in value unless they are able to successfully claim that the reduction was due to the breach by Helix’s officers or directors of a duty of care or other fiduciary duty owed to them, or if they are able to successfully bring a private claim under securities laws that the proxy solicitation materials relating to the Business Combination contained an actionable material misstatement or material omission.

Helix identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting. This material weakness could continue to adversely affect MoonLake’s ability to report its results of operations and financial condition accurately and in a timely manner.

Prior to the Closing, Helix’s management was responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP. Helix’s management evaluated the effectiveness of its internal controls and periodically discloses any changes and material weaknesses identified through such evaluation in those internal controls. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

Helix identified a material weakness in its internal control over financial reporting related to the accounting classification of the Class A Ordinary Shares initially sold in Helix’s IPO on October 22, 2020 (the “public shares”). Historically, a portion of the public shares was classified as permanent equity to maintain shareholders’ equity greater than $5 million on the basis that Helix will not redeem its public shares in an amount that would cause its net tangible assets to be less than $5,000,001, as described in the Prior MAA. Pursuant to such re-evaluation, management has determined that the public shares include certain provisions that require classification of all of the public shares as temporary equity regardless of the net tangible assets redemption limitation contained in the Prior MAA. In addition, in connection with the change in presentation for the public shares, management determined it should restate its earnings per share calculation to allocate income and losses shared pro rata between the two classes of shares. This presentation contemplates a business combination as the most likely outcome, in which case, both classes of shares share pro rata in the income and losses of Helix. Management concluded that the control deficiency that resulted in the incorrect classification of temporary and permanent equity constituted a material weakness as of December 31, 2020 and September 30, 2021. This material weakness resulted in a material misstatement of Helix’s temporary and permanent equity, additional paid-in capital, accumulated deficit, and earnings (loss) per share and related financial disclosures in the (i) audited balance sheet as of October 22, 2020, (ii) audited financial statements included in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, (iii) unaudited interim financial statements included in the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021; (iv) unaudited interim financial statements included in the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021; and (v) unaudited interim financial statements included in the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021.

11

Table of Contents

Helix implemented a plan to remediate the material weakness surrounding its historical presentation of complex financial instruments by enhancing its processes to identify and appropriately apply applicable accounting requirements to better evaluate and understand the nuances of the complex accounting standards that apply to its financial statements. Helix’s plans included providing enhanced access to accounting literature, research materials and documents and increased communication among Helix personnel and third-party professionals with whom Helix consulted regarding complex accounting applications. The elements of the remediation plan can only be accomplished over time, and MoonLake can offer no assurance that these initiatives will ultimately have the intended effects or will prevent any future material weaknesses or deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting. Even though MoonLake has strengthened its controls and procedures, in the future those controls and procedures may not be adequate to prevent or identify irregularities or errors or to facilitate the fair presentation of our financial statements. In addition, any such failures could result in litigation or regulatory action by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, loss of investor confidence, delisting of MoonLake’s securities, and harm to MoonLake’s reputation and financial condition, or diversion of financial and management resources from the operation of MoonLake’s business.

MoonLake may face litigation and other risks as a result of the material weakness in internal control over financial reporting identified by Helix.

Following the re-evaluation of accounting guidance, Helix management and the audit committee of the board of directors of Helix (the “Helix Board”) concluded that it was appropriate to restate Helix’s previously issued audited financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and for the year ended December 31, 2020. The restatement related to the accounting for complex financial instruments. As part of the restatement, Helix identified a material weakness in internal controls over financial reporting.

As a result of this material weakness, and other matters raised or that may in the future be raised by the SEC, MoonLake faces potential litigation or other disputes which may include, among others, claims invoking the federal and state securities laws, contractual claims or other claims arising from the restatement and material weakness in internal control over financial reporting. As of the date of this prospectus, MoonLake has no knowledge of any such litigation or dispute. However, MoonLake can provide no assurance that such litigation or dispute will not arise in the future. Any such litigation or dispute, whether successful or not, could have a material adverse effect on MoonLake’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

The only principal assets of the Company are cash and its interest in MoonLake AG, and accordingly it will depend on distributions from MoonLake AG to pay taxes and expenses.

The Company is a holding company and has no material assets other than cash and its ownership of MoonLake AG Class V Shares and MoonLake AG Common Shares. As such, we have no independent means of generating revenue or cash flow, and our ability to pay taxes and operating expenses or declare and pay dividends in the future, if any, will be dependent upon the financial results and cash flows of MoonLake AG and its subsidiaries, and distributions we receive from MoonLake AG. There can be no assurance that MoonLake AG and its subsidiaries will generate sufficient profits and/or cash flow to distribute funds to us, or that applicable laws and contractual restrictions, including negative covenants in any debt agreements of MoonLake AG or its subsidiaries, will permit such distributions.

Distributions by MoonLake AG to the Company are subject to a Swiss federal dividend withholding tax at the statutory rate of 35%, unless and to the extent that such distributions constitute a repayment of duly reported capital contributions. Under the current structure, the Company is not entitled to any relief from Swiss federal dividend withholding tax, such that MoonLake AG will be required to deduct the Swiss federal dividend withholding tax at the statutory rate of 35% and that such tax deduction will result in a final tax burden for the Company. If the Company’s place of management is relocated to Switzerland such withholding tax on distributions from MoonLake AG to the Company may be eliminated (although such relocation would result in Swiss withholding taxes applying on distributions from the Company to its shareholders; depending on the specific shareholder, such shareholder may be entitled to a full or partial relief or credit for such Swiss withholding tax). There can be no assurances that the Company’s place of management will be relocated or that such withholding tax will be reduced or eliminated.

12

Table of Contents

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information included in this prospectus may not be indicative of what the Company’s actual financial position or results of operations would have been.

The unaudited pro forma condensed combined financial information in this prospectus is presented for illustrative purposes only and is not necessarily indicative of what the Company’s actual financial position or results of operations would have been had the Business Combination been completed on the dates indicated. See the section entitled “Unaudited Pro Forma Condensed Combined Financial Information” for more information.

Risks Related to Product Development

We have never successfully completed the regulatory approval process for any of our product candidates and we may be unable to do so for any product candidates we acquire or develop.

We have not yet demonstrated our ability to successfully complete clinical trials, obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial scale product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful commercialization. If we are required to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials of SLK beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of SLK or other testing, or if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we may:

•        be delayed in obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities for our product candidates;

•        not obtain regulatory approval at all and loose our right and ability under our license from MHKDG to further develop and commercialize SLK;

•        obtain regulatory approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;

•        continue to be subject to post-marketing testing requirements from the FDA, EMA or other regulatory authorities; or

•        experience having the product removed from the market after obtaining regulatory approval.

We are substantially dependent on the success of SLK, and our anticipated clinical trials of SLK may not be successful.

Our future success is substantially dependent on our ability to successfully develop SLK for future marketing approval, and then successful commercialization. We are investing a majority of our efforts and financial resources into the research and development of SLK. We ultimately intend to initiate Phase 2 trials for the therapeutic indications of HS, PsA, and axSpA, beginning with Phase 2 clinical trials in HS that commenced in April 2022. Primary-end point readout for our HS trial is at 12 weeks and we anticipate such readout to occur in mid-2023.

SLK will require additional clinical development, evaluation of clinical, preclinical and manufacturing activities, marketing approval in multiple jurisdictions, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts before we generate any revenues from product sales. We are not permitted to market or promote SLK before we receive marketing approval from the FDA, EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such marketing approvals.

The success of SLK will depend on a variety of factors. We do not have complete control over many of these factors, including certain aspects of clinical development and the regulatory submission process, potential threats to our intellectual property rights and the manufacturing, marketing, distribution and sales efforts of any third parties with whom we choose to collaborate in the future. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will ever be able to generate revenue through the sale of SLK, even if approved. If we are not successful in commercializing SLK, or are significantly delayed in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

13

Table of Contents

We may find it difficult to enroll patients in our clinical trials. If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of patients in clinical trials, our successful completion of clinical trials or receipt of marketing approvals could be delayed or prevented.

We may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for SLK if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate in these trials. Patient enrollment may be affected by various factors, including if our competitors have ongoing clinical trials for product candidates that are under development for the same indications as SLK, and patients instead enroll in such clinical trials. Our inability to enroll a sufficient number of patients would result in significant delays in completing clinical trials or receipt of marketing approvals and increased development costs or may require us to abandon one or more clinical trials altogether. In addition, disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the likelihood that we encounter such difficulties or delays in initiating, enrolling, conducting or completing our planned and ongoing clinical trials.

The results of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of our later clinical trials, and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA, EMA, or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities.

We will be required to demonstrate with substantial evidence through well-controlled clinical trials that SLK is safe and effective before we can seek marketing approvals for commercial sale. Demonstrations of efficacy or an acceptable safety profile in prior preclinical studies of SLK does not mean that future clinical trials will yield the same results. For instance, we do not know whether SLK will perform in future clinical trials as SLK has performed in preclinical studies and early clinical trials conducted by us, MHKDG or Avillion LLP or Ablynx N.V., Belgium (“Ablynx”), a Sanofi company. SLK may fail to demonstrate in later-stage clinical trials sufficient safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities despite having progressed through preclinical studies and earlier stage clinical trials. Regulatory authorities may also limit the scope of later-stage trials until we have demonstrated satisfactory safety or efficacy results in preclinical studies or earlier-stage trials, which could prevent us from conducting the clinical trials we currently anticipate. There is no guarantee that the FDA, EMA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities will consider the data obtained from prior SLK trials sufficient to allow us to initiate the planned Phase 2 trials within the timelines we anticipate, or at all. Even if we are able to initiate our planned clinical trials on schedule, there is no guarantee that we will be able to complete such trials on the timelines we anticipate or that such trials will produce positive results. Any limitation on our ability to conduct clinical trials could delay or prevent regulatory approval or limit the size of the patient population that can be treated by SLK, if approved.

Preclinical and clinical development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain outcomes, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future clinical trial results.

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for commercialization of SLK, we must complete clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of SLK in humans and in selected diseases. Our clinical trials may not be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all, and a failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage. The outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and the outcome of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials for a product candidate for a particular indication may not be predictive of the success of preclinical studies and early-stage clinical trials for the same product candidate for a different indication. In particular, we ultimately intend to initiate Phase 2 trials evaluating SLK in patients with HS, PsA, and axSpA, beginning with Phase 2 clinical trials in HS that commenced in April 2022. We anticipate that these trials will assess therapeutic indication-specific scores and that primary endpoints will most likely be built on HiSCR50 (for HS), ACR50 (for PsA), and ASAS40 (for axSpA) . As part of the secondary endpoint sets, we will also likely measure different score levels, as well as alternative scores and quality-of-life measurements to build clinical profiles. If these Phase 2 trials are successful, we could potentially conduct Phase 3 trials for SLK for each of the three indications, HS, PsA, and axSpA, as well as PsO. This is likely to require additional funding. Although data from the Phase 2 trial for SLK in patients with PsO conducted by Avillion LLP, under a 2017 co-development agreement with MHKDG, showed a significant improvement in the primary endpoint as compared with placebo and was well-tolerated while numerically outperforming the group treated with the current standard of care, secukinumab, trials of the efficacy of SLK in patients with HS, PsA, and axSpA may not yield similar results. If a Phase 3 study is conducted for SLK in patients with PsA, axSpA, HS, and PsO, the outcome may be different than the Phase 2 trials. Unexpectedly favorable results of the standard of care in any Phase 2 or Phase 3 trial could lead to unfavorable comparisons to SLK. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to

14

Table of Contents

varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval of their product candidates.

We cannot guarantee that any clinical trials will be initiated or conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. We also cannot be sure that submission of an investigational new drug application (“IND”) or similar application will result in the FDA, EMA, or other regulatory authority, as applicable, allowing clinical trials to begin in a timely manner, if at all. Moreover, even if these trials begin, issues may arise that could cause regulatory authorities to suspend or terminate such clinical trials. Events that may prevent successful or timely initiation or completion of clinical trials include: inability to generate sufficient preclinical, toxicology or other in vivo or in vitro data to support the initiation or continuation of clinical trials; delays in reaching a consensus with regulatory authorities on study design or implementation of the clinical trials; delays or failure in obtaining regulatory authorization to commence a trial; delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”) and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and clinical trial sites; delays in identifying, recruiting and training suitable clinical investigators; delays in obtaining required institutional review board (“IRB”) approval at each clinical trial site; delays in manufacturing, testing, releasing, validating or importing/exporting sufficient stable quantities of SLK for use in clinical trials or the inability to do any of the foregoing; failure by our CROs, other third parties or us to adhere to clinical trial protocols; failure to perform in accordance with the FDA’s or any other regulatory authority’s good clinical practice requirements (“GCPs”) or applicable regulatory guidelines in other countries; changes to the clinical trial protocols; clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial; changes in regulatory requirements and guidance that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols; selection of clinical endpoints that require prolonged periods of observation or analyses of resulting data; transfer of manufacturing processes to larger-scale facilities operated by a contract manufacturing organization (“CMO”) and delays or failure by our CMOs or us to make any necessary changes to such manufacturing process; and third parties being unwilling or unable to satisfy their contractual obligations to us. In addition, disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may increase the likelihood that we encounter such difficulties or delays in initiating, enrolling, conducting or completing our planned and ongoing clinical trials.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs of the institutions in which such clinical trials are being conducted, by the Data Safety Monitoring Board, if any, for such clinical trial or by the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may suspend or terminate a clinical trial due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical trial protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA, EMA, or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from SLK, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. If we are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of SLK beyond those that we currently contemplate, if we are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of SLK, if the results of these trials are not positive or are only moderately positive or if there are safety concerns, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected and we may incur significant additional costs.

Preliminary, interim data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose preliminary data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials, which are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data. We might also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of these data without the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate complete data. As a result, the preliminary results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated or subsequently made subject to audit and verification procedures.

From time to time, we may also disclose interim data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials. Interim data are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available or as patients from our clinical trials continue other treatments. Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of SLK and our company in general. In addition, the information

15

Table of Contents

we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular preclinical study or clinical trial is based on what is typically extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure. If the preliminary, or interim data that we report differ from actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, SLK may be harmed, which could harm our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition.

Public health crises such as pandemics or similar outbreaks have affected and could continue to seriously and adversely affect MoonLake’s preclinical studies and anticipated clinical trials, business, financial condition and results of operations.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (“WHO”) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, “shelter in place” orders and other public health guidance measures have been implemented across much of Europe, including in the locations of MoonLake’s offices, clinical trial sites, key vendors and partners. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, or similar pandemics, and related “shelter in place” orders and other public health guidance measures, MoonLake may in the future experience disruptions that could seriously harm its business. Potential disruptions include but are not limited to: delays or difficulties in enrolling patients in, initiating or expanding our clinical trials, including delays or difficulties with clinical site initiation and recruiting clinical site investigators and clinical site staff; increased rates of patients withdrawing from MoonLake’s clinical trials following enrollment as a result of contracting COVID-19 or other health conditions or being forced to quarantine; interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site data monitoring and efficacy, safety and translational data collection, processing and analyses, due to limitations on travel imposed; recommendations by federal, state or local governments, employers and others or interruptions of clinical trial subject visits, which may impact the collection and integrity of subject data and clinical trial endpoints; diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as our clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of our clinical trials; delays or disruptions in preclinical experiments and IND-enabling studies due to restrictions of on-site staff and unforeseen circumstances at CROs and vendors; interruption or delays in the operations of the FDA, EMA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities including delays in receiving approval from local regulatory authorities to initiate our planned clinical trials; interruption of, or delays in receiving, supplies of SLK from MoonLake’s CMOs due to staffing shortages, raw materials shortages, production slowdowns or stoppages and disruptions in delivery systems; and limitations on employee or other resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of MoonLake’s clinical trials and preclinical work, including because of sickness of employees or their families, the desire of employees to avoid travel or contact with large groups of people, an increased reliance on working from home, school closures or mass transit disruptions.

The COVID-19 pandemic may also affect the ability of the FDA, EMA, and other regulatory authorities to perform routine functions. If global health concerns prevent the FDA, EMA, or other regulatory authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA, EMA, or other regulatory authorities to timely review and process MoonLake’s regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on MoonLake’s business.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may affect MoonLake’s clinical trials, business, financial condition and results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time, such as the duration of the pandemic, new or continued travel restrictions and actions to contain the outbreak or treat its impact, such as social distancing and quarantines or lock-downs in Switzerland, the United States and other countries, business closures or business disruptions and the effectiveness of actions taken in Switzerland, the United States and other countries to contain and treat the disease. Future developments in these and other areas present material uncertainty and risk with respect to MoonLake’s clinical trials, business, financial condition and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.

16

Table of Contents

We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing, licensing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

We face substantial competition from major pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. Many of our competitors have significantly greater financial, technical and human resources. Smaller and early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. As a result, our competitors may discover, develop, license or commercialize products before or more successfully than we do.

In particular, pharmaceutical companies that develop and/or market products for the indications we are pursuing, namely HS, PsA, axSpA, are likely to represent substantial competition. These include companies developing and/or marketing IL-17A inhibitors (such as Novartis AG, Eli Lilly and Co, Amgen and LEO Pharma), IL-23 inhibitors (such as AbbVie, Janssen, Sun Pharmaceutical and Almirall), IL-12/23 inhibitors (including Janssen), TNF alpha inhibitors (such as AbbVie, Pfizer, Janssen and UCB), TYK2 inhibitors (such as Bristol Myers Squibb), JAK inhibitors (such as AbbVie and Pfizer). It also includes UCB as the development and commercializing company for the only other IL-17A and F inhibitor beyond SLK (bimekizumab) of which we are aware. While SLK represents a novel mechanism of action, all of the above mechanisms are also of potential therapeutic use in one or more of the three indications being pursued now in the Phase 2 program or in PsO. If SLK does not offer sustainable advantages over competing products, we may otherwise not be able to successfully compete against current and future competitors.

Our competitors may obtain regulatory approval of their products more rapidly than we may or may obtain patent protection or other intellectual property rights that limit our ability to develop or commercialize SLK. Our competitors may also develop drugs that are more effective, more convenient, more widely used and less costly or have a better safety profile than SLK and these competitors may also be more successful than us in manufacturing and marketing their products.

Furthermore, we also face competition more broadly across the market for existing cost-effective and reimbursable inflammatory skin and joint disease treatments. SLK, if approved, may compete with these existing drug and other therapies but may not be competitive with them in price. We expect that if SLK is approved, it will be priced at a significant premium over generic, including branded generic, products. As a result, obtaining market acceptance of, and gaining significant share of the market for, SLK will pose challenges.

SLK may have a safety profile that could prevent regulatory approval, marketing approval or market acceptance, or limit its commercial potential.

Patients in previous SLK trials have experienced adverse events, including oral Candida. See the section titled “Business — Clinical Development of SLK.” If SLK is associated with undesirable side effects or has unexpected characteristics in preclinical studies or clinical trials when used alone or in combination with other approved products or INDs, we may need to interrupt, delay or abandon SLK’s development or limit development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which such potential undesirable side effects or other characteristics may be less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective. Treatment-related side effects could also affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of SLK and may adversely affect our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. For details of the current understanding of the SLK safety profile, see “Business”.

Additionally, after SLK may receive marketing approval, we or others may later identify undesirable side effects or adverse events caused by SLK. In such cases, regulatory authorities may suspend, limit or withdraw approvals of SLK or seek an injunction against its manufacture or distribution, require additional warnings on the label, including “boxed” warnings, or issue safety alerts, require press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about SLK, require us to change the way SLK is administered or conduct additional clinical trials or post-approval studies, require us to create a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (“REMS”) which could include a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients, impose fines, injunctions or criminal penalties. We could also be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients, and our reputation may suffer. Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of SLK, if approved, and could seriously harm our business.

17

Table of Contents

Risks Related to Regulatory Process and Other Legal Compliance Matters

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, EMA, and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities are complex, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable. If we are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals for SLK, we may not be able to commercialize, or may be delayed in commercializing, SLK, and our ability to generate revenue will be materially impaired.

The process of obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States, European Union (“EU”), and other jurisdictions is complex, expensive and typically takes many years following commencement of clinical trials, if approval is obtained at all, and can vary substantially based upon a variety of factors, including the type, complexity and novelty of the product candidates involved. We cannot commercialize SLK in the United States without first obtaining regulatory approval from the FDA. Similarly, we cannot commercialize SLK outside of the United States without obtaining regulatory approval from comparable foreign regulatory authorities. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of SLK, we must demonstrate through complex and expensive preclinical studies and clinical trials that SLK is both safe and effective for each targeted indication. Securing regulatory approval also requires the submission of information about the drug manufacturing process to, and inspection of manufacturing facilities by, the relevant regulatory authorities. Further, SLK may not be effective, may be only moderately effective or may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities or other characteristics that may preclude our obtaining marketing approval. The FDA, EMA, and comparable foreign regulatory authorities have discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other data. SLK could be delayed in receiving, or fail to receive, regulatory approval for many reasons, including: the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials; we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that SLK is safe and effective for its proposed indication; the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval; serious and unexpected drug-related side effects may be experienced by participants in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs similar to SLK; we may be unable to demonstrate that SLK’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks; the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials; the data collected from clinical trials of SLK may not be acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of a biologics license application (“BLA”) or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere, and we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials; the FDA, EMA, or the applicable foreign regulatory authority may disagree regarding the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications of SLK; the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and the approval policies or regulations of the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval. Thus, the approval requirements for SLK are likely to vary by jurisdiction such that success in one jurisdiction is not necessarily predicative of success elsewhere.

Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the FDA, EMA, or foreign regulatory approval processes and are commercialized. The lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market SLK, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

If we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve SLK for fewer or more limited indications than we request, including failing to approve the most commercially promising indications, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve SLK with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of SLK. If we are not able to obtain, or if there are delays in obtaining, required regulatory approvals for SLK, we may not be able to commercialize, or may be delayed in commercializing, SLK and our ability to generate revenue could be materially impaired.

18

Table of Contents

We will be subject to extensive ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or experience unanticipated problems with SLK.

Any regulatory approvals that we may receive for SLK will require the submission of reports to regulatory authorities and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of SLK, may contain significant limitations related to use restrictions for specified age groups, warnings, precautions or contraindications, and may include burdensome post-approval study or risk management requirements. In addition, if the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities approve SLK, SLK and the activities associated with its development and commercialization, including its design, testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, recordkeeping, labeling, storage, approval, advertising, promotion, sale, distribution, import and export will be subject to comprehensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory agencies in the United States and by the EMA in the EU and comparable foreign regulatory authorities. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as on-going compliance with current good manufacturing practices (“cGMPs”) and GCPs for any clinical trials that we conduct following approval. In addition, manufacturers of drug products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic, unannounced inspections by the FDA, EMA, and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMPs.

If we or a regulatory authority discover previously unknown problems with SLK, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facilities where SLK is manufactured, a regulatory authority may impose restrictions on SLK, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of SLK from the market or suspension of manufacturing, restrictions on our ability to conduct clinical trials, including full or partial clinical holds on ongoing or planned trials, restrictions on the manufacturing process, warning or untitled letters, civil and criminal penalties, injunctions, product seizures, detentions or import bans, voluntary or mandatory publicity requirements and imposition of restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements. The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize SLK and generate revenue and could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity.

The FDA’s, EMA’s and other regulatory comparable authorities’ policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit, delay, increase the cost or risks of obtaining regulatory approval of our product candidates, including if as a result new or more costly or difficult to achieve clinical trial or manufacturing quality requirements are imposed. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any regulatory approval that we may have obtained, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

Due to unfavorable pricing regulations and/or third-party coverage and reimbursement policies, we may not be able to offer SLK at competitive prices which would seriously harm our business.

Our ability to successfully commercialize SLK also will depend in part on the extent to which reimbursement for SLK and related treatments will be available from government health administration authorities, private health insurers and other organizations. Government authorities and other third-party payors, such as private health insurers and health maintenance organizations, decide which medications they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels.

The FDA, EMA, and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses.

If SLK is approved and we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses of SLK, we may become subject to significant liability. See the section of this prospectus titled “Business — Government Regulation.” If we cannot successfully manage the promotion of SLK, if approved, we could become subject to significant liability, which would materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements.

We are exposed to the risk that our employees, independent contractors, consultants, commercial collaborators, principal investigators, CROs, suppliers and vendors acting for or on our behalf may engage in misconduct or other improper activities. We adopted a code of conduct following the Closing to more closely reflect our operations, but

19

Table of Contents

it is not always possible to identify and deter misconduct by these parties and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations.

Our business operations and current and future arrangements with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers will be subject to applicable healthcare regulatory laws, which could expose us to penalties.

Our business operations and current and future arrangements with investigators, healthcare professionals, consultants, third-party payors, patient organizations and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations. These laws may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we conduct our operations, including how we research, market, sell and distribute SLK, if approved. See the section titled “Business — Government Regulation” for a more detailed description of the laws that may affect our ability to operate.

Ensuring that our internal operations and future business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payers play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval. Our future arrangements with third-party payers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute our product candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval. Restrictions under applicable U.S. federal and state healthcare laws and regulations.

Healthcare legislative reform discourse and potential or enacted measures may have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations and legislative or political discussions surrounding the desire for and implementation of pricing reforms may adversely impact our business.

Payers, whether domestic or foreign, or governmental or private, are developing increasingly sophisticated methods of controlling healthcare costs and those methods are not always specifically adapted for new technologies. In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. In particular, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars; addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program; extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs; created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% (increased to 70% pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, effective as of January 1, 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D; and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research.

Since its enactment, there have been numerous judicial, administrative, executive, and legislative challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. It is unclear how other healthcare reform measures of the Biden administrations or other efforts, if any, to amend or challenge the ACA, will impact our business.

Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted. Additionally, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to specialty drug pricing practices. Specifically, there have been several recent U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drugs.

20

Table of Contents

At a federal level, President Biden signed an Executive Order on July 9, 2021 affirming the administration’s policy to (i) support legislative reforms that would lower the prices of prescription drug and biologics, including by allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices, by imposing inflation caps, and, by supporting the development and market entry of lower-cost generic drugs and biosimilars; and (ii) support the enactment of a public health insurance option. Among other things, the Executive Order also directs the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) to provide a report on actions to combat excessive pricing of prescription drugs, enhance the domestic drug supply chain, reduce the price that the Federal government pays for drugs, and address price gouging in the industry; and directs the FDA to work with states and Indian Tribes that propose to develop section 804 Importation Programs in accordance with the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, and the FDA’s implementing regulations. The FDA released such implementing regulations on September 24, 2020, which went into effect on November 30, 2020, providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. On September 25, 2020, the HHS’s Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) stated that drugs imported by states under this rule will not be eligible for federal rebates under Section 1927 of the Social Security Act and manufacturers would not report these drugs for “best price” or Average Manufacturer Price purposes. Since these drugs are not considered covered outpatient drugs, CMS further stated it will not publish a National Average Drug Acquisition Cost for these drugs. If implemented, importation of drugs from Canada may materially and adversely affect the price we receive for any of our product candidates. Further, on November 20, 2020 CMS issued an Interim Final Rule implementing the Most Favored Nation, or MFN, Model under which Medicare Part B reimbursement rates would have been calculated for certain drugs and biologicals based on the lowest price drug manufacturers receive in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) countries with a similar gross domestic product per capita. However, the MFN rule was immediately challenged in federal courts and on August 6, 2021 CMS announced a proposed rule to rescind it. Additionally, on December 2, 2020, HHS published a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers. On November 30, 2020, HHS published a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers. In response to litigation, the Biden administration agreed to delay the effective date of the rule until January 1, 2023. Further, implementation of these changes and new safe harbors for point-of-sale reductions in price for prescription pharmaceutical products and pharmacy benefit manager service fees are currently under review by the Biden administration and may be amended or repealed. Although a number of these and other proposed measures may require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, and the Biden administration may reverse or otherwise change these measures, both the Biden administration and Congress have indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative measures to control drug costs. The effect of these legislative and executive activities on our business model and operations is currently unclear.

At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

We and our external partners are subject to complex environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures, the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, and the rehabilitation of contaminated sites. Our operations, including those performed by our external partners, may involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological and radioactive materials. In addition, we and/or our external partners may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or commercialization efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.

21

Table of Contents

We are subject to laws and regulations related to privacy, data protection, information security and consumer protection across different markets where we conduct our business. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.

We are subject to laws and regulations related to, among other things, privacy, data protection, information security and consumer protection across different markets were we conduct our business. Such laws and regulations are constantly evolving and changing and are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial operations. Complying with these numerous, complex, and often changing regulations is expensive and difficult, and failure to comply with any privacy laws or data security laws or any security incident or breach involving the potential or actual misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized processing, use or disclosure of sensitive or confidential patient, consumer or other personal information, whether by us, one of our collaborators or another third party, could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations, including but not limited to investigation costs, material fines and penalties, compensatory, special, punitive, and statutory damages, litigation, consent orders regarding our privacy and security practices, requirements that we provide notices, credit monitoring services, and/or credit restoration services or other relevant services to impacted individuals, adverse actions against our licenses to do business, reputational damage and injunctive relief.

European data collection is also governed by restrictive regulations governing the use, processing and cross-border transfer of personal information. The collection, use, storage, disclosure, transfer, or other processing of personal data regarding individuals in the EU, including personal health data, is subject to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which imposes strict requirements for processing the personal data of individuals within the European Economic Area (the “EEA”), such as Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The GDPR is directly applicable in each EU member state and is extended to the EEA. The GDPR is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, including requirements relating to processing health and other sensitive data, obtaining consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data, providing notification of data breaches, and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors. The GDPR implements more stringent operational requirements than its predecessor legislation. Compliance with the GDPR will be a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase our cost of doing business or require us to change our business practices, and despite those efforts, there is a risk that we may be subject to fines and penalties, litigation, and reputational harm in connection with our European activities. For example, the GDPR applies extraterritorially, requires us to make more detailed disclosures to data subjects, requires disclosure of the legal basis on which we can process personal data, makes it harder for us to obtain valid consent for collecting and processing personal data (including data from clinical trials), requires the appointment of data protection officers, such as when sensitive personal data, such as health data, is processed on a large scale, provides more robust rights for data subjects, including far reaching information rights and the right to erasure, introduces mandatory data breach notification through the EU, imposes additional obligations on us when contracting with service providers and requires us to adopt appropriate privacy governance, including policies, procedures, training, and data audit. The GDPR provides that EU member states and EEA countries may establish their own laws and regulations that go beyond the GDPR in certain areas, such as regarding the mandatory appointment of data protection officers or further limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric, or health data, which could limit our ability to use and share personal data or could cause our costs to increase. Among other requirements, the GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the GDPR to third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data, including the United States, and the efficacy and longevity of current transfer mechanisms between the EU and the United States remains uncertain. For example, in 2016, the EU and the United States agreed to a transfer framework for data transferred from the EU to the United States, called the Privacy Shield, but the Privacy Shield was invalidated in July 2020 by the Court of Justice of the European Union (“CJEU”). While the CJEU upheld the adequacy of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal data transfer mechanism, and potential alternative to the Privacy Shield), it made clear that reliance on them alone may not necessarily be sufficient in all circumstances. Use of the standard contractual clauses must now be assessed on a case-by-case basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals and additional measures and/or contractual provisions may need to be put in place, however, the nature of these additional measures is currently uncertain. After Brexit the United Kingdom is also a third country from an EU perspective, but the EU Commission adopted adequacy

22

Table of Contents

decisions for the United Kingdom on June 28, 2021 largely permitting the free flow of data from the EU to the United Kingdom. However, for the first time, the adequacy decisions include a so-called “sunset clause” and, therefore, will automatically expire four years after their entry into force.

Furthermore, processing of personal data in Switzerland is governed by restrictive regulations, in particular with respect to health and medical data. The collection, storage, use, revision, disclosure, archiving or destruction of personal data in Switzerland is subject to the Federal Act on Data Protection (“FDAP”) as well as various other federal and cantonal acts governing medical research and professional secrecy. The FDAP is wide-ranging in scope and imposes numerous requirements on companies that process personal data, including requirements relating to processing health and other sensitive data, obtaining consent of the individuals to whom the personal data relates, providing information to individuals regarding data processing activities, implementing safeguards to protect the security and confidentiality of personal data and taking certain measures when engaging third-party processors. Compliance with the FDAP will be a rigorous and time-intensive process that may increase our cost of doing business or require us to change our business practices, and despite those efforts, there is a risk that we may be subject to sanctions. Breaches of or non-compliance with applicable data protection regulations and professional secrecy obligations could result in fines, or, under certain circumstances, imprisonment of the individuals responsible for the breach or non-compliance. The sanctions regime relating to data protection obligations will be more comprehensive under the revised FDAP (which is expected to enter into force in the second half of 2022).

We cannot assure you that our third-party service providers with access to our or our customers’, suppliers’, trial patients’ and employees’ personally identifiable and other sensitive or confidential information will not breach contractual obligations imposed by us, or that they will not experience data security breaches or attempts thereof, which could have a corresponding effect on our business, including putting us in breach of our obligations under privacy laws and regulations and/or which could in turn adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. We cannot assure you that our contractual measures and our own privacy and security-related safeguards will protect us from the risks associated with the third-party processing, use, storage, and transmission of such information. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We are subject to certain U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions, and other trade laws and regulations. We can face serious consequences for violations.

Among other matters, U.S. and foreign anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, export control, sanctions, and other trade laws and regulations, prohibit companies and their employees, agents, clinical research organizations, legal counsel, accountants, consultants, contractors, and other partners from authorizing, promising, offering, providing, soliciting, or receiving directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to or from recipients in the public or private sector. Violations of these laws can result in substantial criminal fines and civil penalties, imprisonment, the loss of trade privileges, debarment, tax reassessments, breach of contract and fraud litigation, reputational harm, and other consequences. We have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or government-affiliated hospitals, universities, and other organizations. We also expect our non-U.S. activities to increase in time. We plan to engage third parties for clinical trials and/or to obtain necessary permits, licenses, patent registrations, and other regulatory approvals and we can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our personnel, agents, or partners, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have prior knowledge of such activities.

We may be a passive foreign investment company, or “PFIC,” which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors.

If we are a PFIC for any taxable year (or portion thereof) that is included in the holding period of a U.S. Holder (as defined in the section of this prospectus captioned “United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) of our Class A Ordinary Shares, the U.S. Holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences and may be subject to additional reporting requirements. Because we were a blank check company with no active business prior to the Business Combination, we believe that we were a PFIC for our taxable year ended December 31, 2021. For the current taxable year and subsequent taxable years, the asset and income tests will be applied based on the assets and activities of the combined business. Based on the income and assets of the Company following the Business Combination, it is

23

Table of Contents

possible we may be classified as a PFIC for the current taxable year. However, because the PFIC characterization of the assets and revenue of the combined Company for these purposes is uncertain and because our PFIC status for each taxable year will depend on several factors, including the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets (which may be determined in part by reference to the market value of our Class A Ordinary Shares), our PFIC status for the current taxable year or any other taxable year may not be determined until after the close of the taxable year. Accordingly, there can be no assurances with respect to our status as a PFIC for our current taxable year or any subsequent taxable year. If we determine we are a PFIC for any taxable year, upon written request, we will endeavor to provide to a U.S. Holder such information as the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) may require, including a PFIC annual information statement, in order to enable the U.S. Holder to make and maintain a “qualified electing fund” election, but there can be no assurance that we will timely provide such required information.

We urge U.S. investors to consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules. For a more detailed explanation of the tax consequences of PFIC classification to U.S. Holders, see the section of this prospectus captioned “United States Federal Income Tax Considerations — Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

The Cayman Islands Economic Substance Act may affect our operations.

The Cayman Islands has recently enacted the International Tax Co-operation (Economic Substance) Act (As Revised), or the Cayman Economic Substance Act. The Cayman Economic Substance Act generally requires legal entities domiciled or registered in the Cayman Islands to have demonstrable substance in the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Economic Substance Act was introduced by the Cayman Islands to ensure that it meets its commitments to the EU, as well as its obligations under the OECD’s global Base Erosion and Profit Shifting initiatives. The Company is required to comply with the Cayman Economic Substance Act. As the Company is a Cayman Islands company, compliance obligations include filing annual notifications for the Company, which need to state whether the Company is carrying out any relevant activities and, if so, whether the Company has satisfied economic substance tests to the extent required under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. As it is a relatively new regime, it is anticipated that the Cayman Economic Substance Act will evolve and be subject to further clarification and amendments. The Company may need to allocate additional resources to keep updated with these developments, and may have to make changes to the Company’s operations in order to comply with all requirements under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. Failure to satisfy these requirements may subject the Company to penalties under the Cayman Economic Substance Act. The Cayman Islands Tax Information Authority shall impose a penalty of CI$10,000 (or US$12,500) on a relevant entity for failing to satisfy the economic substance test or CI$100,000 (or US$125,000) if it is not satisfied in the subsequent financial year after the initial notice of failure. Following failure after two consecutive years the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands may make an order requiring the relevant entity to take specified action to satisfy the economic substance test or ordering it that it is defunct or be struck off.

Risks Related to Employee Matters, Managing Our Growth and Other Risks Related to Our Business

We are dependent on our key personnel and anticipate hiring new key personnel. If we are not successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, we may not be able to successfully implement our business strategy.

Our ability to compete in the highly competitive biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries depends upon our ability to attract and retain qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel. We are dependent on our managerial, scientific and medical personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Scientific Officer. If we do not succeed in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We could in the future have difficulty attracting and retaining experienced personnel and may be required to expend significant financial resources in our employee recruitment and retention efforts. Furthermore, we are dependent on our ability to attract, hire, relocate and retain qualified managerial, scientific and medical personnel from jurisdictions other than Switzerland. Therefore, Swiss immigration requirements have a significant influence on our human resources planning. Immigration applications can take several months or more to be finalized. If we are unable to complete the requisite visa applications, either as a result of changing requirements or otherwise, our ability to successfully implement our business strategy could suffer, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

24

Table of Contents

In order to successfully implement our plans and strategies, we will need to grow the size of our organization and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth.

We expect to experience significant growth in the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of drug development, clinical operations, regulatory affairs and, potentially, others. To manage our anticipated future growth, we must continue to implement and develop our managerial, operational and financial systems, expand our facilities and continue to recruit and train additional qualified personnel. Due to our limited financial resources and the limited experience of our management team in managing a company with such anticipated growth, we may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations or recruit and train additional qualified personnel.

Our internal computer systems, or those of any of our CROs, manufacturers, other contractors or consultants or potential future collaborators, may fail or suffer security or data privacy breaches or other unauthorized or improper access to, use of, or destruction of our proprietary or confidential data, employee data or personal data, which could result in additional costs, loss of revenue, significant liabilities, harm to our brand and material disruption of our operations.

Despite the implementation of security measures in an effort to protect systems that store our information, given their size and complexity and the increasing amounts of information maintained on our internal information technology systems and those of our third-party CROs, other contractors (including sites performing our clinical trials) and consultants, these systems are potentially vulnerable to breakdown or other damage or interruption from service interruptions, system malfunction, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, as well as security breaches from inadvertent or intentional actions by our employees, contractors, consultants, business partners and/or other third parties, or from cyber-attacks by malicious third parties, which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to the loss, destruction, alteration or dissemination of, or damage to, our data. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss, destruction, unavailability, alteration or dissemination of, or damage to, our data or applications, or for it to be believed or reported that any of these occurred, we could incur liability and reputational damage and the development and commercialization of SLK could be delayed. Further, our insurance policies may not be adequate to compensate us for the potential losses arising from any such disruption in, or failure or security breach of, our systems or third-party systems where information important to our business operations or commercial development is stored.

Risks Related to Reliance on Third Parties

We currently rely, and plan to rely in the future, on third parties to conduct and support our preclinical studies and clinical trials. If these third parties do not properly and successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval of or commercialize SLK.

We have utilized and plan to continue to utilize and depend upon independent investigators and collaborators, such as medical institutions, CROs, CMOs and strategic partners, to conduct and support our preclinical studies and clinical trials under agreements with us. We will rely heavily on these third parties over the course of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and we control only certain aspects of their activities. As a result, we will have less direct control over the conduct, timing and completion of these preclinical studies and clinical trials and the management of data developed through preclinical studies and clinical trials than would be the case if we were relying entirely upon our own staff. Nevertheless, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our studies and trials is conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards, and our reliance on these third parties does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. We and our third-party contractors and CROs are required to comply with GCP regulations, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities for product candidates in clinical development. If we or any of these third parties fail to comply with applicable GCP regulations, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, EMA, or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with GCP regulations, even if responsibilities have been outlined in agreements with external partners, such as CROs. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process. Moreover, our business may be implicated if any of these third parties violates federal or state fraud and abuse or false claims laws and regulations or healthcare privacy and security laws.

25

Table of Contents

Any third parties conducting our clinical trials will not be our employees and, except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third parties, we cannot control whether they devote sufficient time and resources to SLK. These third parties may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials or other product development activities, which could affect their performance on our behalf. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to complete development of, obtain regulatory approval of or successfully commercialize SLK.

We currently rely on third parties to produce and process SLK. Our business could be adversely affected if the third-party manufacturers fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of SLK or fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices.

We do not currently own or operate any facility that may be used to produce SLK (including any drug substance or finished drug product) and must currently rely on CMOs to produce them for us. We have not yet caused SLK to be manufactured on a commercial scale and may not be able to do so for SLK, if approved.

We do not control the manufacturing process of, and are completely dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMP requirements and any other regulatory requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities for the manufacture of SLK. Beyond periodic audits, we have no control over the ability of our CMOs to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA, EMA, or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of SLK or if it withdraws any approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would require the incurrence of significant additional costs and materially and adversely affect our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market SLK, if approved. Similarly, our failure, or the failure of our CMOs, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of SLK, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of SLK and harm our business and results of operations.

Moreover, if any CMOs on which we will rely fail to manufacture quantities of SLK at quality levels necessary to meet regulatory requirements and at a scale sufficient to meet anticipated demand at a cost that allows us to achieve profitability, our business, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Our business could be similarly affected by business disruptions to our third-party providers with potential impacts on our future revenue and financial condition and our costs and expenses. Each of these risks could delay or prevent the completion of our clinical trials or the approval of SLK by the FDA, result in higher costs or adversely impact commercialization of SLK.

We may, in the future, form or seek collaborations or strategic alliances or enter into licensing arrangements, and we may not realize the benefits of such collaborations, alliances or licensing arrangements.

We may, in the future, form or seek strategic alliances, create joint ventures or collaborations, or enter into licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our development and commercialization efforts with respect to SLK and/or the Company more broadly. Any of these relationships may require us to increase our near and long-term expenditures, issue securities that dilute our existing shareholders or disrupt our management and business.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Our ability to protect our patents and other proprietary rights is uncertain, exposing us to the possible loss of competitive advantage.

We rely upon a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property related to SLK and our technologies and to prevent third parties from copying and surpassing our achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. Our success depends in large part on our ability to obtain and maintain patent protection for SLK and its uses, components, formulations, methods of manufacturing and methods of treatment, as well as our ability to operate without infringing on or violating the proprietary rights of

26

Table of Contents

others. We own and have licensed rights to patent applications and pending patent applications, and expect to continue to file patent applications in the United States and abroad related to our novel discoveries and technologies that are important to our business.

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies generally is highly uncertain, involves complex legal and factual questions and has in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, the issuance, scope, validity, enforceability and commercial value of our patent rights are highly uncertain. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued which protect our technology or drug candidates or which effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies and drug candidates. The patent examination process may require us or our licensors to narrow the scope of the claims of our or our licensors’ pending and future patent applications, which may limit the scope of patent protection that may be obtained. We cannot assure you that all of the potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found. If such prior art exists, it can invalidate a patent or prevent a patent application from being issued as a patent.

We enjoy only limited geographical protection with respect to certain patents and may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world and the legal systems in certain countries may not favor enforcement or protection of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property. Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on SLK worldwide would be prohibitively expensive and our intellectual property rights in some foreign jurisdictions can be less extensive than those in the United States. We have licensed patents in the most relevant countries but may not be able to obtain patents in all jurisdictions even if we apply for them. Our competitors may operate in countries where we do not have patent protection and can freely use our technologies and discoveries in such countries to the extent such technologies and discoveries are publicly known or disclosed in countries where we do have patent protection or pending patent applications. Our pending and future patent applications may not result in patents being issued. Any issued patents may not afford sufficient protection of SLK or its intended uses against competitors, nor can there be any assurance that the patents issued will not be infringed, designed around, invalidated by third parties, or effectively prevent others from commercializing competitive technologies, products or product candidates. Further, even if these patents are granted, they may be difficult to enforce.

In addition, many countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner may be compelled to grant licenses to third parties. Many countries also limit the enforceability of patents against government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, the patent owner may have limited remedies, which could materially diminish the value of such patent. If we or any of our licensors is forced to grant a license to third parties with respect to any patents relevant to our business, our competitive position may be impaired, and our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated if we fail to comply with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance and annuity fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) and foreign patent agencies over the lifetime of a patent. In addition, the USPTO and other foreign patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment, and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent failure to make payment of such fees or to comply with such provisions can in many cases be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which such non-compliance will result in the abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, and the partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application include failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, and non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents within prescribed time limits. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our drug candidates or if we or our licensors otherwise allow our patents or patent applications to be abandoned or lapse, our competitors might be able to enter the market, which would hurt our competitive position and could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates in any indication for which they are approved.

27

Table of Contents

Issued patents covering one or more of our drug candidates could be found invalid or unenforceable.

Any issued patents that we may license or own covering SLK could be narrowed or found invalid or unenforceable if challenged in court or before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, including the USPTO. Also, patent terms, including any extensions or adjustments that may or may not be available to us, may be inadequate to protect our competitive position with respect to SLK for an adequate amount of time, and we may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship, validity, enforceability of our patents and/or other intellectual property. Finally, changes in U.S. patent law, or laws in other countries, could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect SLK. Further, if we encounter delays in our clinical trials or delays in obtaining regulatory approval, the period of time during which we could market SLK under patent protection would be reduced. Thus, the patents that we own and license may not afford us any meaningful competitive advantage.

Moreover, we or our licensors may be subject to a third-party pre-issuance submission of prior art to the USPTO or become involved in opposition, derivation, revocation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review or interference proceedings challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or SLK and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize drugs without infringing third-party patent rights. If the breadth or strength of protection provided by our patents and patent applications is threatened, regardless of the outcome, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to license, develop or commercialize SLK. In addition to seeking patents for some of our technology and SLK, we may also rely on trade secrets, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, to maintain our competitive position. Any disclosure, either intentional or unintentional, by our employees, the employees of third parties with whom we share our facilities or third-party consultants and vendors that we engage to perform research, clinical trials or manufacturing activities, or misappropriation by third parties (such as through a cybersecurity breach) of our trade secrets or proprietary information could enable competitors to duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. In order to protect our proprietary technology and processes, we rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our collaborators, employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers and other advisors. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. We may need to share our proprietary information, including trade secrets, with future business partners, collaborators, contractors and others located in countries at heightened risk of theft of trade secrets, including through direct intrusion by private parties or foreign actors and those affiliated with or controlled by state actors. In addition, while the Company undertakes efforts to protect its trade secrets and other confidential information from disclosure, others may independently discover trade secrets and proprietary information, and in such cases, we may not be able to assert any trade secret rights against such party. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

We may be subject to damages resulting from claims that we or our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of our competitors or are in breach of non-competition or non-solicitation agreements with our competitors.

As is common in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, we employ individuals and engage the services of consultants who previously worked for other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers, or that our consultants have used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former or current clients. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses, and could distract our technical and management personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and, if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. This type of litigation or proceeding could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce our resources available for development activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to adequately conduct such litigation or proceedings.

28

Table of Contents

Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other intellectual property related proceedings could adversely affect our ability to compete in the marketplace.

Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position with respect to SLK for an adequate amount of time.

Patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, if all maintenance fees are timely paid, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years from its earliest U.S. non-provisional filing date. Various extensions may be available, but the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Even if patents covering SLK are obtained, once the patent life has expired, we may be open to competition from competitive products, including generics or biosimilars. Given the amount of time required for the development, testing and regulatory review of new product candidates, patents protecting such candidates might expire before or shortly after such candidates are commercialized. As a result, our owned and licensed patent portfolio may not provide us with sufficient rights to exclude others from commercializing products similar or identical to ours.

If we do not obtain patent term extension in the United States under the Hatch-Waxman Act and in foreign countries under similar legislation, thereby potentially extending the term of our marketing exclusivity for SLK, our business may be materially harmed.

In the United States, the patent term of a patent that covers an FDA-approved drug may be eligible for limited patent term extension, which permits patent term restoration as compensation for the patent term lost during the FDA regulatory review process. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, also known as the Hatch-Waxman Act, permits a patent term extension of up to five years beyond the expiration of the patent. The length of the patent term extension is related to the length of time the drug is under regulatory review. Patent extension cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the date of product approval, and only one patent applicable to an approved drug may be extended and only those claims covering the approved drug, a method for using it, or a method for manufacturing it may be extended. Similar provisions are available in Europe and certain other non-United States jurisdictions to extend the term of a patent that covers an approved drug. While, in the future, if and when SLK receives FDA approval, we expect to apply for patent term extensions on patents covering SLK, there is no guarantee that the applicable authorities will agree with our assessment of whether such extensions should be granted, and even if granted, the length of such extensions. We may not be granted patent term extension either in the United States or in any foreign country because of, for example, failing to exercise due diligence during the testing phase or regulatory review process, failing to apply within applicable deadlines, failing to apply prior to expiration of relevant patents or otherwise failing to satisfy applicable requirements. Moreover, the term of extension, as well as the scope of patent protection during any such extension, afforded by the governmental authority could be less than we request. If we are unable to obtain any patent term extension or the term of any such extension is less than we request, our competitors may obtain approval of competing products following the expiration of our patent rights, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially harmed.

It is possible that we will not obtain patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act for a U.S. patent covering SLK that we may identify even where that patent is eligible for patent term extension, or if we obtain such an extension, it may be for a shorter period than we had sought. Further, for our licensed patents, we may not have the right to control prosecution, including filing with the USPTO, a petition for patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act. Thus, if one of our licensed patents is eligible for patent term extension under the Hatch-Waxman Act, we may not be able to control whether a petition to obtain a patent term extension is filed, or obtained, from the USPTO.

Also, there are detailed rules and requirements regarding the patents that may be submitted to the FDA for listing in the Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the Orange Book). We may be unable to obtain patents covering SLK that contain one or more claims that satisfy the requirements for listing in the Orange Book. Even if we submit a patent for listing in the Orange Book, the FDA may decline to list the patent, or a manufacturer of generic drugs may challenge the listing. If SLK is approved and a patent covering SLK is not listed in the Orange Book, a manufacturer of generic drugs would not have to provide advance notice to us of any abbreviated new drug application filed with the FDA to obtain permission to sell a generic version of SLK.

29

Table of Contents

Changes to patent laws in the United States and other jurisdictions could diminish the value of patents in general, thereby impairing our ability to protect SLK.

Changes in either the patent laws or interpretation of patent laws in the United States, including patent reform legislation such as the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (the “Leahy-Smith Act”) could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our owned and in-licensed patent applications and the maintenance, enforcement or defense of our owned and in-licensed issued patents. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to United States patent law. These changes include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art, provide more efficient and cost-effective avenues for competitors to challenge the validity of patents, and enable third-party submission of prior art to the USPTO during patent prosecution and additional procedures to challenge the validity of a patent at USPTO-administered post-grant proceedings, including post-grant review, inter partes review, and derivation proceedings. Assuming that other requirements for patentability are met, prior to March 2013, in the United States, the first to invent the claimed invention was entitled to the patent, while outside the United States, the first to file a patent application was entitled to the patent. After March 2013, under the Leahy-Smith Act, the United States transitioned to a first-to-file system in which, assuming that the other statutory requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether a third party was the first to invent the claimed invention. As such, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition, the patent positions of companies in the development and commercialization of biologics and pharmaceuticals are particularly uncertain. Recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings have narrowed the scope of patent protection available in certain circumstances and altered the rights of patent owners in certain situations. This combination of events has created uncertainty with respect to the validity and enforceability of patents once obtained. Depending on future legislation by the U.S. Congress, decisions by the federal courts and the USPTO, the laws and regulations governing patents could change in unpredictable ways that could have a material adverse effect on our patent rights and our ability to protect, defend and enforce our patent rights in the future. For example, in the case Amgen v. Sanofi, the Federal Circuit held broad functional antibody claims invalid for lack of enablement. Similarly, in the case Juno v. Kite, the Federal Circuit held genus claims directed to CAR-T cells invalid for lack of written description for failing to provide disclosure commiserate with the scope of the claims. While we do not believe that any of the patents licensed or owned by us will be found invalid based on these decisions, we cannot predict how future decisions by the courts, Congress or the USPTO may impact the value of our patents. Similarly, changes in the patent laws of other jurisdictions could adversely affect our ability to obtain and effectively enforce our patent rights, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We may not identify relevant third-party patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third-party patent, which might adversely affect our ability to develop and market SLK.

We cannot guarantee that any of our patent searches or analyses, including the identification of relevant patents, the scope of patent claims or the expiration of relevant patents, are complete or thorough, nor can we be certain that we have identified each and every third-party patent and pending application in the United States and abroad that is relevant to or necessary for the commercialization of SLK in any jurisdiction. The scope of a patent claim is determined by an interpretation of the law, the written disclosure in a patent and the patent’s prosecution history. Our interpretation of the relevance or the scope of a patent or a pending application may be incorrect. Our determination of the expiration date of any patent in the United States or abroad that we consider relevant may be incorrect. Our failure to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents may negatively impact our ability to develop and market SLK.

In addition, because some patent applications in the United States may be maintained in secrecy until the patents are issued, patent applications in the United States and many foreign jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, and publications in the scientific literature often lag behind actual discoveries, we cannot be certain that others have not filed patent applications for technology covered by our issued patents or our pending applications, or that we were the first to invent the technology. Our competitors may have filed, and may in the future file, patent applications covering SLK or technology similar to ours. Any such patent application may have priority over our patent applications or patents, which could require us to obtain rights to issued patents covering such technologies.

30

Table of Contents

We may be subject to claims challenging the inventorship of our patents and other intellectual property.

We generally enter into confidentiality and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees, consultants, and contractors. These agreements generally provide that inventions conceived by the party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property. However, those agreements may not be honored and may not effectively assign intellectual property rights to us. Moreover, there may be some circumstances, where we are unable to negotiate for such ownership rights.

We may be subject to claims that former employees, collaborators or other third parties have an interest in our patents or other intellectual property as an inventor or co-inventor. The failure to name the proper inventors on a patent application can result in the patents issuing thereon being unenforceable. Inventorship disputes may arise from conflicting views regarding the contributions of different individuals named as inventors, the effects of foreign laws where foreign nationals are involved in the development of the subject matter of the patent, conflicting obligations of third parties involved in developing SLK or as a result of questions regarding co-ownership of potential joint inventions. Litigation may be necessary to resolve these and other claims challenging inventorship and/or ownership. Alternatively, or additionally, we may enter into agreements to clarify the scope of our rights in such intellectual property. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights, such as exclusive ownership of, or right to use, valuable intellectual property. Such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

We may be subject to patent infringement claims or may need to file claims to protect our intellectual property, which could result in substantial costs and liability and prevent us from commercializing SLK.

Because the intellectual property landscape in the biotechnology industry is rapidly evolving and is interdisciplinary, it is difficult to conclusively assess our freedom to operate without infringing on or violating third party rights. If a third party successfully brings a claim against us, we may be required to pay substantial damages, be forced to abandon SLK and/or seek a license from the patent holder. In addition, any intellectual property claims (e.g. patent infringement or trade secret theft) brought against us, whether or not successful, may cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from other business concerns. We cannot be certain that patents owned or licensed by us will not be challenged by others in the course of litigation. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex intellectual property litigation more effectively than we can. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise funds and on the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.

Competitors may infringe or otherwise violate our patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property. To counter infringement or other violations, we may be required to file claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any such claims could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us, including claims alleging that we infringe their patents or other intellectual property rights. In addition, in a patent infringement proceeding, a court or administrative body may decide that one or more of the patents we assert is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to prevent the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology. Similarly, if we assert trademark infringement claims, a court or administrative body may determine that the marks we have asserted are invalid or unenforceable or that the party against whom we have asserted trademark infringement has superior rights to the marks in question. In such a case, we could ultimately be forced to cease use of such marks. In any intellectual property litigation, even if we are successful, any award of monetary damages or other remedy we receive may not be commercially valuable.

Further, we may be required to protect our patents through procedures created to challenge the validity of a patent at the USPTO. An adverse determination in any such submission or proceeding could reduce the scope or enforceability of, or invalidate, our patent rights, which could adversely affect our competitive position. Because of a lower evidentiary standard in USPTO proceedings compared to the evidentiary standard in United States federal courts necessary to invalidate a patent claim, a third party could potentially provide evidence in a USPTO proceeding sufficient for the USPTO to hold a claim invalid even though the same evidence would be insufficient to invalidate the claim if first presented in a district court action.

31

Table of Contents

In addition, if SLK is found to infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, these third parties may assert infringement claims against our future licensees and other parties with whom we have business relationships and we may be required to indemnify those parties for any damages they suffer as a result of these claims, which may require us to initiate or defend protracted and costly litigation on behalf of licensees and other parties regardless of the merits of such claims. If any of these claims succeed, we may be forced to pay damages on behalf of those parties or may be required to obtain a license for SLK.

Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation or other legal proceedings relating to our intellectual property rights, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation or other proceedings.

We license patent rights from third-party owners and we rely on such owners to obtain, maintain and enforce the patents underlying such licenses.

We are a party to certain licenses, including with our licensor with MHKDG, that provide us rights to intellectual property that are necessary or useful for SLK and its respective components, formulations, methods of manufacturing and methods of treatment. These license agreements require us to satisfy certain obligations and, if these agreements are terminated (e.g., as a result of our failure to satisfy such obligations), our technology and our business could be adversely affected. We may also enter into additional licenses to third-party intellectual property in the future; however, we may not be able to obtain such licenses on economically feasible terms or other reasonable terms and conditions, or at all.

Our licensors may not successfully prosecute the patent applications that we have licensed. Even if patents are issued in respect of these patent applications, our licensors may fail to maintain these patents, may determine not to pursue litigation against other companies that are infringing these patents, or may pursue such litigation less aggressively than we would. Without protection for the intellectual property we license, other companies might be able to offer substantially identical products for sale, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects.

We have limited, if any, control over the amount or timing of resources that our licensors devote on our behalf or the priority they place on maintaining these patent rights and prosecuting these patent applications to our advantage. Should MHKDG decide it no longer wants to maintain any of the patents licensed to us, MHKDG is required to afford us the opportunity to do so at our expense. However, we cannot be sure that MHKDG will perform as required. If MHKDG does not perform, and if we do not assume the maintenance of the licensed patents in sufficient time to make required payments or filings with the appropriate governmental agencies, we risk losing the benefit of all or some of those patent rights. In the event our licensors fail to adequately pursue and maintain patent protection for patents and applications they control, and to timely cede control of such prosecution to us, our competitors might be able to enter the market, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our license from MHKDG may be subject to retained rights.

MHKDG retains certain rights under its license agreement with us, including the right to use the underlying technology for noncommercial academic and research use, to publish general scientific findings from research related to the technology, and to make customary scientific and scholarly disclosures of information relating to the technology. It is difficult to monitor whether MHKDG limits its use of the technology to these uses, and we could incur substantial expenses to enforce our rights to our licensed technology in the event of misuse.

We may not be able to effectively secure first-tier technologies when competing against other companies or investors.

Our future success may require that we acquire patent rights and know-how to new or complimentary technologies. However, we compete with a substantial number of other companies that may also compete for technologies we desire. In addition, many venture capital firms and other institutional investors, as well as other biotechnology companies, invest in companies seeking to commercialize various types of emerging technologies. Many of these companies have greater financial, scientific and commercial resources than us. Therefore, we may not be able to secure the technologies we desire. Furthermore, should any commercial undertaking by us prove to be successful, there can be no assurance competitors with greater financial resources will not offer competitive products and/or technologies.

32

Table of Contents

Numerous factors may limit any potential competitive advantage provided by our intellectual property rights.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights, whether owned or in-licensed, is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, provide a barrier to entry against our competitors or potential competitors, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. Moreover, if a third party has intellectual property rights that cover the practice of our technology, we may not be able to fully exercise or extract value from our intellectual property rights. The factors that may limit any potential competitive advantage provided by our intellectual property rights include:

•        pending patent applications that we own or license may not lead to issued patents;

•        patents, should they issue, that we own or license, may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be challenged and held invalid or unenforceable;

•        others may be able to develop and/or practice technology that is similar to our technology or aspects of our technology but that is not covered by the claims of any of our owned or in-licensed patents, should any such patents issue;

•        third parties may compete with us in jurisdictions where we do not pursue and obtain patent protection;

•        we (or our licensors) might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by a pending patent application that we own or license;

•        we (or our licensors) might not have been the first to file patent applications covering a particular invention;

•        others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies without infringing our intellectual property rights;

•        we may not be able to obtain and/or maintain necessary licenses on reasonable terms or at all;

•        third parties may assert an ownership interest in our intellectual property and, if successful, such disputes may preclude us from exercising exclusive rights, or any rights at all, over that intellectual property;

•        we may not be able to maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets or other proprietary information;

•        we may not develop or in-license additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; and

•        the patents of others may have an adverse effect on our business.

Should any of these events occur, they could significantly harm our business and results of operation.

If approved, our product candidates that are regulated as biologics may face competition from biosimilars approved through an abbreviated regulatory pathway.

The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, was enacted as part of the ACA to establish an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biological products. The regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an approved biologic. Under the BPCIA, a reference biological product is granted 12 years of data exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the product, and the FDA will not accept an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product based on the reference biological product until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first licensed. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still develop and receive approval of a competing biologic, so long as their BLA does not reply on the reference product, sponsor’s data or submit the application as a biosimilar application. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty, and any new policies or processes adopted by the FDA could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our biological products.

33

Table of Contents

We believe that SLK approved in the United States as a biological product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider the subject product candidates to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for biosimilar competition sooner than anticipated. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any one of the reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing. The approval of a biosimilar of our product candidates could have a material adverse impact on our business due to increased competition and pricing pressure.

Risks Related to Our Class A Ordinary Shares

The price of our shares may be volatile, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

The trading price of our Class A Ordinary Shares is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, including the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus. The realization of any of these factors could have an adverse impact on the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market for biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. In particular, the trading prices for biotechnology companies have been volatile as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares, regardless of our actual operating performance. The market price for our Class A Ordinary Shares may be influenced by many factors, including:

•        the success of competitive products or technologies;

•        advancement of our preclinical programs into clinical testing;

•        results of clinical trials of our product candidates or those of our competitors;

•        regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;

•        developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

•        the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

•        the level of expenses related to any of our programs and product candidates or preclinical and clinical development programs;

•        the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or products;

•        actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

•        variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

•        market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

•        general economic, industry and market conditions; and

•        the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

If our share price is volatile, we may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities. This type of litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which would materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

34

Table of Contents

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports, or if they publish adverse or misleading research or reports, regarding us or our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares will be influenced by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by securities or industry analysts. If no or few securities or industry analysts commence coverage of us or if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, our stock price could be negatively impacted. In the event we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if any of the analysts who cover us issue adverse or misleading research or reports regarding us, our business model, our intellectual property, our share performance or our market, or if our operating results fail to meet the expectations of analysts, our share price could decline.

Future resales of Class A Ordinary Shares may cause the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares to decline significantly, even if our business is doing well.

Pursuant to the A&R Registration Rights Agreement and/or the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, as applicable, the following lock-ups are in place: (a) a six-month lock-up period following the Closing applies to the MoonLake AG Common Shares and Class C Ordinary Shares held by the ML Parties (other than the BVF Shareholders) and any Class A Ordinary Shares received by them during the lock-up period in exchange for their MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of their Class C Ordinary Shares; (b) a thirty-day lock-up period following the Closing applies to the private placement shares held by the Sponsor and its permitted transferees; (c) a one-year lock-up period following the Closing applies to the founder shares held by the Sponsor, Nancy Chang, Will Lewis and John Shmid (collectively, the “initial shareholders”) and the Class A Ordinary Shares held by the BVF Shareholders, subject to earlier release from the lock-up if subsequent to the Business Combination (x) the closing price of the Class A Ordinary Shares equals or exceeds $12.00 per share (as adjusted for share sub-divisions, share capitalizations, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within any 30-trading day period commencing at least 150 days after the Closing or (y) following the Closing the Company completes a liquidation, merger, share exchange or other similar transaction that results in all of the Company’s shareholders having the right to exchange their ordinary shares for cash, securities or other property. The PIPE Investors (other than the BVF Shareholders and MSI BVF SPV LLC) are not restricted from selling any of their Class A Ordinary Shares following the Closing.

Following the expiration of the respective lock-up periods, sales of a substantial number of Class A Ordinary Shares in the public market could occur. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares. As restrictions on resale end and registration statements (filed to provide for the resale of such shares from time to time) are available for use, the sale or possibility of sale of these shares could have the effect of increasing the volatility in the Company’s share price or the market price of the Class A Ordinary Shares could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

Our principal shareholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and are able to exert significant influence over matters subject to shareholder approval.

Our executive officers, directors, holders of 5% or more of our capital stock and their respective affiliates own approximately 86.6% of our outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares and Class C Ordinary Shares on an as-converted, fully diluted basis, assuming (i) the exchange of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of Class C Ordinary Shares for Class A Ordinary Shares by the ML Parties (other than the BVF Shareholders) in accordance with the terms of the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, and (ii) none of the parties purchase Class A Ordinary Shares in the open market. Certain of our directors are affiliated with the holders of 5% or more of our capital stock. In particular, Dr. Andrew Philips is an affiliate of Cormorant, Dr. Jorge Santos da Silva and Simon Sturge are ML Parties, and Spike Loy is associated with the BVF Shareholders, as indicated in the section titled “Beneficial Ownership of Securities.” These shareholders, acting together, may be able to impact matters requiring shareholder approval. They may be able to impact elections of directors, amendments of our organizational documents or approval of any merger, sale of assets or other major corporate transaction. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our capital stock that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our shareholders. The interests of this group of shareholders may not always coincide with your interests or the interests of other shareholders and they may act in a manner that advances their best interests and not necessarily those of other shareholders, including seeking a premium value for their shares, and might affect the prevailing market price for our Class A Ordinary Shares.

35

Table of Contents

Certain provisions of the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement regarding the waiver of minority shareholder rights by the ML Parties may not be enforceable under Swiss corporate law.

Under the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement, the ML Parties undertake not to exercise and in that sense waive certain of their statutory shareholder rights, including the right to request information about the affairs of MoonLake AG other than in the course of the MoonLake AG shareholders’ meeting, the right to request the MoonLake AG shareholders’ meeting to initiate a special audit and the right to request the competent governmental authority to appoint a special auditor, the right to request the MoonLake AG board of directors to call a shareholders’ meeting, the right to challenge resolutions by the MoonLake AG shareholders’ meetings and the right to request that resolutions and other actions by the MoonLake AG board of directors shall be null and void. Such waivers may not be enforceable under Swiss corporate law and, as a consequence, the ML Parties may be able to exercise such shareholder rights notwithstanding the waiver of such rights in the A&R Shareholders’ Agreement.

There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.

The Company’s continued eligibility for listing on the Nasdaq depends on a number of factors, including the Company having a minimum level of shareholders’ equity, among meeting other listing standards. If Nasdaq delists the Class A Ordinary Shares from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, the Company and its shareholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

•        a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;

•        a determination that our Class A Ordinary Shares are a “penny stock,” which will require brokers trading in our Class A Ordinary Shares to adhere to more stringent rules, possibly resulting in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares;

•        a limited amount of analyst coverage; and

•        a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

An active trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares may not be sustained, and you may not be able to resell your shares at the time when you want.

Although our Class A Ordinary Shares are listed on Nasdaq, an active trading market for our shares may not be sustained. In the absence of an active trading market for our Class A Ordinary Shares, investors may be unable to sell their shares.

Anti-takeover provisions in the Company’s organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.

Certain provisions of the MAA and Cayman Islands Law may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a shareholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our members.

These provisions provide for, among other things:

•        establishing a classified Board;

•        allowing the Board to issue one or more series of preference shares;

•        establishing advance notice for nominations of directors by members and for members to include matters to be considered at general meetings;

•        eliminating the ability of members to fill vacancies on the Board;

•        establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the Board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by at our annual general meetings;

•        permitting the Board to establish the number of directors;

•        eliminating the ability of members to call general meetings or act by written consent;

•        requiring a special resolution to amend the MAA; and

•        limit the jurisdictions in which certain shareholder litigation may be brought.

36

Table of Contents

These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire the Company, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our shareholders. As a result, our shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other shareholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause the Company to take other corporate actions you desire. See “Description of Securities.”

Our indemnification obligations to our officers and directors may result in a significant cost to us and hurt the interests of our shareholders.

Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against willful default, willful neglect, actual fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. The MAA provides for indemnification of our officers and directors to the maximum extent permitted by law, including for any liability incurred in their capacities as such, except through their own actual fraud, willful default or willful neglect. We purchased a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our officers and directors against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment in some circumstances and insures us against our obligations to indemnify our officers and directors. We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers that obligate us to indemnify, hold harmless, exonerate, and to advance expenses as incurred, to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, from damage arising from the fact that such person is or was an officer or director of MoonLake or its subsidiaries.

Our indemnification obligations may discourage shareholders from bringing a lawsuit against our officers or directors for breach of their fiduciary duty. These provisions also may have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against our officers and directors, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our shareholders. Furthermore, a shareholder’s investment may be adversely affected to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against our officers and directors pursuant to these indemnification provisions.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

The Company has never declared or paid cash dividends on its capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our Class A Ordinary Shares will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities may adversely affect the Company, including the market price of our Class A Ordinary Shares and may be dilutive to existing shareholders.

There is no assurance that the Company will not incur debt or issue equity ranking senior to the Class A Ordinary Shares. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting its operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that the Company issues in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of Class A Ordinary Shares. Separately, additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. Because the Company’s decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond the Company’s control, it cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of the Company’s future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of Class A Ordinary Shares and be dilutive to existing shareholders.

Because MoonLake became a public reporting company by means other than a traditional underwritten initial public offering, shareholders may face additional risks and uncertainties.

Because MoonLake became a public reporting company by means of consummating the Business Combination rather than by means of a traditional underwritten initial public offering, there is no independent third-party underwriter selling the Class A Ordinary Shares, and, accordingly, shareholders will not have the benefit of an independent review and investigation of the type normally performed by an unaffiliated, independent underwriter in a public securities offering. Due diligence reviews typically include an independent investigation of the background of MoonLake, any

37

Table of Contents

advisors and their respective affiliates, review of the offering documents and independent analysis of the plan of business and any underlying financial assumptions. Because there is no independent third-party underwriter selling the Class A Ordinary Shares, investors must rely on the information included in this prospectus. Although Helix performed a due diligence review and investigation of MoonLake in connection with the Business Combination that it believed to be reasonable, the lack of an independent due diligence review and investigation increases the risk of investment in the Company because this due diligence investigation may not have uncovered facts that would be important to a potential investor.

In addition, because the Company did not become a public reporting company by means of at traditional underwritten initial public offering, security or industry analysts may not provide, or be less likely to provide, coverage of the Company. Investment banks may also be less likely to agree to underwrite follow-on or secondary offerings on behalf of the Company than they might if the Company became a public reporting company by means of a traditional underwritten initial public offering, because they may be less familiar with the Company as a result of not having performed similar work during the initial public offering process or because of more limited coverage by analysts and the media. The failure to receive research coverage or support in the market for the Class A Ordinary Shares could have an adverse effect on the Company’s ability to develop a liquid market for the Class A Ordinary Shares.

General Risk Factors

MoonLake is an “emerging growth company” and it cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make the Class A Ordinary Shares less attractive to investors.

MoonLake is an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, MoonLake is only required to provide two years of audited financial statements and management discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations disclosure. In addition, MoonLake is not required to obtain auditor attestation of reporting on internal control over financial reporting, has reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and is not required to hold non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation. In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. These provisions allow an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of these accounting standards until they would otherwise apply to private companies. MoonLake has elected to take advantage of such extended transition period. MoonLake cannot predict whether investors will find the Class A Ordinary Shares to be less attractive as a result of its reliance on these exemptions. If some investors find the Class A Ordinary Shares to be less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for the Class A Ordinary Shares and the price of the Class A Ordinary Shares may be more volatile than the current trading market and price of Class A Ordinary Shares.

MoonLake will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (i) the end of the fiscal year in MoonLake has total annual gross revenue of $1.07 billion; (ii) the last day of MoonLake’s fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date on which Helix consummated its IPO (or December 31, 2025); (iii) the date on which MoonLake issues more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the preceding three-year period; or (iv) the end of the fiscal year in which the market value of the Class A Ordinary Shares held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of MoonLake’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

Further, there is no guarantee that the exemptions available under the JOBS Act will result in significant savings. To the extent that MoonLake chooses not to use exemptions from various reporting requirements under the JOBS Act, it will incur additional compliance costs, which may impact MoonLake’s financial condition.

We may become a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we would be exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

We may become a “foreign private issuer” as defined in Rule 36-4 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). If we do become a foreign private issuer, we would be exempt from certain rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

•        the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current report on Form 8-K;

•        the section of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

38

Table of Contents

•        the section of the Exchange Act requiring directors, officers and 10% holders to file public reporting of their stock ownership and trading activities and imposing liability on insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

•        the selective disclosure rules under Regulation FD restricting issuers from selectively disclosing material nonpublic information.

Accordingly, the information we would be required to file with or furnish to the SEC as a foreign private issuer is less extensive and less frequent as compared to the information required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers.

In addition, if we become a foreign private issuer whose securities are listed on Nasdaq, we would permitted to, and may elect to, follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of the requirements of the Nasdaq Rules pursuant to Nasdaq Rule 5615(a)(3). Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers and may afford our shareholders less protection than they otherwise would enjoy under the Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. We would be required to disclose any significant ways in which our corporate governance practices differ from those followed by U.S. domestic issuers under Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards in an annual report on Form 20-F filed with the SEC or on our website.

39

Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

All of the Class A Ordinary Shares offered by the Selling Shareholders pursuant to this prospectus will be sold by the Selling Shareholders for their respective accounts. We will not receive any of the proceeds from these sales.

40

Table of Contents

SELLING SHAREHOLDERS

This prospectus relates to the resale by the Selling Shareholders from time to time of up to 49,281,756 Class A Ordinary Shares, including Class A Ordinary Shares that are issuable to certain Selling Shareholders pursuant to the Restated and Amended Shareholders’ Agreement upon the exchange by such Selling Shareholders of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of Class C Ordinary Shares. The Selling Shareholders may from time to time offer and sell any or all of the Class A Ordinary Shares set forth below pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. When we refer to the “Selling Shareholders” in this prospectus, we mean the persons listed in the table below, and the pledgees, donees, transferees, assignees, successors, designees and others who later come to hold any of the Selling Shareholders’ interest in the Class A Ordinary Shares other than through a public sale.

The following table sets forth, as of April 29, 2022, the names of the Selling Shareholders, the aggregate number of Class A Ordinary Shares held by (or may become held by, upon the exchange of MoonLake AG Common Shares and simultaneous surrender of Class C Ordinary Shares pursuant to the Restated and Amended Shareholders’ Agreement) each Selling Shareholder immediately prior to the sale of Class A Ordinary Shares in this offering, the number of Class A Ordinary Shares that may be sold by each Selling Shareholder under this prospectus and the number of Class A Ordinary Shares that each Selling Shareholder will beneficially own after this offering. As contemplated by Section 240.01 of the Regulation S-K Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations of the SEC’s Division of Corporation Finance, we are identifying certain of the Selling Shareholders on a group basis because they hold an aggregate of less than 1% of our outstanding Class C Ordinary Shares and none of our outstanding Class A Ordinary Shares prior to this offering.

For purposes of the table below, we have assumed that the Selling Shareholders will not acquire beneficial ownership of any additional securities during the offering. The following table is prepared based on information provided to us by the Selling Shareholders. In addition, we assume that the Selling Shareholders have not sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of, our securities in transactions exempt from the registration requirements of the Securities Act. Any changed or new information given to us by the Selling Shareholders, including regarding the identity of, and the securities held by, each Selling Shareholder, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement or amendments to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, if and when necessary.

We have determined beneficial ownership in accordance with the rules of the SEC. Beneficial ownership generally includes voting or investment power over securities. Except in cases where community property laws apply or as indicated in the footnotes to this table, we believe that each Selling Shareholder identified in the table possesses sole voting and investment power over the Class A Ordinary Shares shown as beneficially owned by the Selling Shareholder. The information is not necessarily indicative of beneficial ownership for any other purpose. Unless otherwise indicated below, to our knowledge, the persons and entities named in the tables have sole voting and sole investment power with respect to all securities that they beneficially own, subject to community property laws where applicable.

41

Table of Contents

 

Shares Beneficially Owned Before this
Offering
(1)

 

Class A
Ordinary
Shares
Being
Offered
(2)

 

Shares Beneficially Owned After this
Offering
(3)

Name of Beneficial Owner

 

Shares

 

% Class A
Ordinary
Shares

 

% Class C
Ordinary
Shares

 

% Total
Voting
Power

 

Shares

 

Shares

 

% Class A
Ordinary
Shares

 

% Class C
Ordinary
Shares

 

% Total
Voting
Power

Atlas Diversified Master Fund, Ltd. (4)

 

500,000

 

1.35

%

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

500,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Certain funds managed by BVF Partners L.P.(5)

 

21,751,284

 

58.91

%

 

0.00

%

 

41.27

%

 

21,751,284

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Citadel CEMF Investments Ltd.(6)

 

2,685,937

 

7.27

%

 

0.00

%

 

5.10

%

 

2,000,000

 

685,937

 

1.30

%

 

0.00

%

 

1.30

%

Certain funds affiliated with Cormorant Asset Management, LP(7)

 

2,850,000

 

7.72

%

 

0.00

%

 

5.41

%

 

2,850,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Certain funds managed by Ghost Tree Capital Group, LP(8)

 

300,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

300,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Certain funds managed by Monashee Investment Management LLC(9)

 

200,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

200,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Certain funds managed by RTW Investments, LP(10)

 

1,250,000

 

3.39

%

 

0.00

%

 

2.37

%

 

500,000

 

750,000

 

1.42

%

 

0.00

%

 

1.42

%

TCG CrossOver Fund I, L.P.(11)

 

1,000,000

 

2.71

%

 

0.00

%

 

1.90

%

 

1,000,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Certain funds managed by Tekla Capital Management LLC(12)

 

300,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

300,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc.(13)

 

1,246,862

 

3.38

%

 

0.00

%

 

2.37

%

 

500,000

 

746,862

 

1.42

%

 

0.00

%

 

1.42

%

683 Capital Partners, LP(14)

 

200,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

200,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Jefferies LLC(15)

 

67,654

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

67,654

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Cowen Investments II LLC(16)

 

16,173

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

16,173

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

SVB Securities LLC(17)

 

16,173

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

16,173

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Helix Holdings LLC(18)

 

3,215,000

 

8.71

%

 

0.00

%

 

6.10

%

 

3,215,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Dr. Nancy Chang(19)

 

30,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

30,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Will Lewis(20)

 

30,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

30,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

John Schmid(21)

 

30,000

 

*

 

 

0.00

%

 

*

 

 

30,000

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Dr. Jorge Santos da Silva(22)

 

3,363,870

 

0.00

%

 

21.32

%

 

6.38

%

 

3,363,870

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Dr. Kristian Reich(23)

 

3,363,870

 

0.00

%

 

21.32

%

 

6.38

%

 

3,363,870

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Matthias Bodenstedt(24)

 

915,376

 

0.00

%

 

5.80

%

 

1.74

%

 

915,376

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Simon Sturge(25)

 

342,980

 

0.00

%

 

2.17

%

 

*

 

 

342,980

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Merck Healthcare KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Germany(26)

 

3,330,231

 

0.00

%

 

21.11

%

 

6.32

%

 

3,330,231

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Florian Schönharting

 

2,051,961

 

0.00

%

 

13.01

%

 

3.89

%

 

2,051,961

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

Arnout Michiel Ploos van Amstel(27)

 

1,757,420

 

0.00

%

 

11.14

%

 

3.33

%

 

1,757,420

 

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%

 

0.00

%